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Application of Doehlert experimental design for the removal of radium from aqueous solution by cross-linked phenoxycalix[4]pyrrole-polymer using Ba(II) as a model

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Abstract

Ra-226 is a naturally occurring radionuclide that is derived from uranium-238 series, and it is present at low concentrations in rocks, soil, and groundwater. Many efforts have been exerted for the decontamination of radium from aqueous media in order to meet the increasing water demand of the population. To this aim, a new polymer based on cross-linked phenoxycalix[4]pyrrole was designed and employed in solid/liquid extractions in order to remove radium from aqueous solutions. Preliminary experiments have highlighted the capability of this polymer to extract 22% of Ra-226 from aqueous acidic solution. The optimization of the extraction experimental factors in the direction to attend the maximum removal of Ra-226 from water was carried out employing Ba2+ due to its similar chemical behavior as radium, in order to minimize the consumption of Ra-226 solutions and the risk of radioactive contamination. Doehlert experimental plan was then applied to determine the optimal conditions (pH, time, temperature) for the removal of Ba2+ from aqueous solutions.

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Correspondence to Ahmad Rifai.

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AlHaddad, N., Sidaoui, R., Tabbal, M. et al. Application of Doehlert experimental design for the removal of radium from aqueous solution by cross-linked phenoxycalix[4]pyrrole-polymer using Ba(II) as a model. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 4325–4336 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07021-w

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Keywords

  • Calix[4]pyrrole polymer
  • Ra-226 removal
  • Doehlert system
  • Optimal conditions of extraction