Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Geometric indexes of heart rate variability in healthy individuals exposed to long-term air pollution

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the autonomic modulation of heart rate in healthy individuals exposed to long-term air pollution through geometric methods. We analyzed data from 109 healthy adults aged 18 to 49, divided into three groups according to the exposure time: period 0 to 15 years of exposure (n = 29), more than 15 years of exposure (n = 31), and control group (n = 49). For the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate was recorded beat-to-beat for 20 min in the sitting position. The RR intervals were transformed into geometric indexes, and from them, we calculated the RRTri (triangular index), TINN (triangle interpolation of histogram of intervals NN), and Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2). Significantly lower values were observed in the group of individuals exposed to air pollution for more than 15 years compared with the group of individuals exposed to air pollution for a period of 0–15 years and those not exposed for the RRTri (11.5 vs 13.8 vs 14.0), SD1 (16.4 vs 20.5 vs 20.6), SD2 (60.5 vs 68.1 vs 72.5), and SD1/SD2 (0.27 vs 0.34 vs 0.31), with the effect of this difference being considered large (RRTri), medium (SD1, SD1/SD2), and small (SD2). TINN was not significantly different among groups (198.2 vs 223.1 vs 233.6). Healthy individuals exposed to air pollution for more than 15 years present an autonomic imbalance, characterized by lower parasympathetic modulation and overall HRV.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Achten J, Jeukendrup AE (2003) Heart rate monitoring: applications and limitations. Sports Med 33(1):517–538. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333070-00004

  2. Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M et al (2004) Air pollution and cardiovascular disease - a statement for healthcare professionals from the expert panel on population and prevention science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 109:2655–2671. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000128587.30041.C8

  3. Cetesb - Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (2001) Sistema Estuarino de Santos e São Vicente / Santos and São Vicente Estuarine System (Technical report). Cetesb Publishing. http://www.acpo.org.br/biblioteca/06_areas_contaminadas_%20saturadas/relatorio_sistema_estuarino_santos_sv.pdf. Accessed 9 May 2019a (in Portuguese)

  4. Cetesb - Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (2013) Relatório de Qualidade do Ar no Estado de São Paulo / Air Quality Report in the State of São Paulo (Technical report). Cetesb Publishing. https://cetesb.sp.gov.br/ar/publicacoes-relatorios/. Accessed 9 May 2019b (in Portuguese)

  5. Corrales MM, Torres BC, Esquivel AG, Salazar MAG, Orellana JN (2012) Normal values of heart rate variability at rest in a young, healthy and active Mexican population. Heath 4(7):377–385. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2012.47060

  6. Dias de Carvalho T, Marcelo Pastre C, Claudino Rossi R, de Abreu LC, Valenti VE, Marques Vanderlei LC (2011) Geometric index of heart rate variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Rev Port Pneumol 17(6):260–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rppneu.2011.06.007

  7. Hoshi RA, Pastre CM, Vanderlei LC, Godoy MF (2013) Poincaré plot indexes of heart rate variability: relationships with other nonlinear variables. Auton Neurosci 177(2):271–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2013.05.004

  8. Huikuri HV, Makikallio TH, Perkiomaki J (2003) Measurement of heart rate variability by methods based on nonlinear dynamics. J Electrocardiol 36(9):95–99

  9. IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística/ Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2017) Conheça cidades e estados do Brasil/ Meet cities and states of Brazil. IBGE Publishing. https://cidadesibgegovbr/brasil/sp/cubatao/panorama and https://cidadesibgegovbr/brasil/sp/peruibe/panorama. Accessed 28 January 2019

  10. IPAQ Research Committee (2005) Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)–short and long forms. IPAQ group Publishing. https://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id=5641f4c36143250eac8b45b7&assetKey=AS%3A294237418606593%401447163075131. Accessed 10 Abril 2019

  11. Khaled AS, Owis MI, Mohamed ASA (2006) Employing time-domain methods and poincaré plot of heart rate variability signals to detect congestive heart failure. BIME Jl Publishing. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253138855_Employing_Time-Domain_Methods_and_Poincare_Plot_of_Heart_Rate_Variability_Signals_to_Detect_Congestive_Heart_Failure. Accessed 12 Abril 2019

  12. Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R (1988) Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign

  13. Makikallio TH, Høiber S, Køber L, Torp-Pedersen C, Peng CK, Goldberger AL et al (1999) Fractal analysis of heart rate dynamics as a predictor of mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 83(6):836–839

  14. Meier-Girard D, Delgado-Eckert E, Schaffner E, Schindler C, Künzli N, Adam M, Pichot V, Kronenberg F, Imboden M, Frey U, Probst-Hensch N (2019) Association of long-term exposure to traffic-related PM10 with heart rate variability and heart rate dynamics in healthy subjects. Environ Int 125:107–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.031

  15. Ministry of Health (Ministério da Saúde do Brasil) (2019) Riscos Ambientais e a saúde humana (Environmental risks and human health). Available in: http://portalms.saude.gov.br/vigilancia-em-saude/vigilancia-ambiental/vigiar/riscosambientais-e-a-saude-humana. Accessed Abr 2019 (in Portuguese)

  16. Niskanen J-P, Tarvainen MP, Ranta-Aho PO, Karjalainen PA (2004) Software for advanced HRV analysis. Comput Methods Prog Biomed 76:73–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2004.03.004

  17. Prefeitura Municipal de Cubatão/ Cubatão City Hall. Aspectos geográficos/ Geographical aspects. Prefeitura Municipal de Cubatão/ Cubatão City Hall Publishing. http://www.cubatao.sp.gov.br/aspectos-geograficos/. Accessed 17 May 2019 (in Portuguese)

  18. Prefeitura Municipal de Peruíbe/ Peruíbe City Hall Cidade/ City. Prefeitura Municipal de Peruíbe/ Peruíbe City Hall Publishing. http://www.peruibe3.sp.gov.br/cidade-de-peruibe/. Accessed May 2019 (in Portuguese)

  19. Pumprla J, Howorka K, Groves D, Chester M, Nolan J (2002) Functional assessment of heart rate variability: physiological basis and practical applications. Int J Cardiol 84:1–14

  20. Quintana DS, Heathers JA, Kemp AH (2012) On the validity of using the Polar RS800 heart rate monitor for heart rate variability research. Eur J Appl Physiol 112(12):4179–4180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2453-2

  21. Riediker M, Cascio WE, Griggs TR, Herbst MC, Bromberg PA, Neas L et al (2004) Particulate matter exposure in cars is associated with cardiovascular effects in healthy young men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 169(8):934–940. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200310-1463OC

  22. Ryti NRI, Guo Y, Jaakkola JK (2016) Global Association of Cold Spells and Adverse Health Effects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 124(1):12–22. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408104

  23. Schneider A, Hampel R, Mulli AI, Zareba W, Schmidt G, Schneider R et al (2010) Changes in deceleration capacity of heart rate and heart rate variability induced by ambient air pollution in individuals with coronary artery disease. Part Fibre Toxicol 7(29):1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-7-29

  24. Task Force of Eur Soc (1996) Cardiology the North Am Society of Pacing electrophysiology. Heart rate variability: standarts of measurement physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation 93:1043–1065. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.93.5.1043

  25. Terzano C, Di Stefano F, Conti V, Graziani E, Petroianni A (2010) Air pollution ultrafine particles: toxicity beyond the lung. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 14:809–821

  26. Thayer JF, Lane RD (2007) The role of vagal function in the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Biol Psychol 74:224–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.11.013

  27. Thayer JF, Sternberg E (2006) Beyond heart rate variability: vagal regulation of allostatic systems. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1088:361–372. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1366.014

  28. Vanderlei LC, Pastre CM, Hoshi RA, Carvalho TD, Godoy MF (2009) Basic notions of heart rate variability and its clinical applicability. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 24(2):205–217. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-76382009000200018

  29. Vanderlei LC, Pastre CM, Freitas Jr IF, Godoy MF (2010) Geometric indexes of heart rate variability in obese and eutrophic children. Arq Bras Cardiol 95(1):35–40. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2010005000082

  30. Vega-Martínez G, Toledo-Peral C, Alvarado-Serrano C, Leija-Salas L, Aztati-Aguilar OG, Vizcaya-Ruiz A (2014) SDNN index of heart rate variability as an indicator of change in rats exposed to fine particles: study of the impact of air pollution in Mexico City. IEEE Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEEE.2014.6978319

  31. Voss A, Schroeder R, Heitmann A, Peters A, Perz S (2015) Short-term heart rate variability—influence of gender and age in healthy subjects. PLoS One 10(3):e0118308. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118308

  32. Wasserman EB, Zareba W, Utell MJ, Oakes D, Hopke PK, Frampton M, Chalupa D, Beckett W, Rich DQ (2014) Acute changes in ambient temperature are associated with adverse changes in cardiac rhythm. Air Qual Atmos Health 7:357–367. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-014-0244-0

  33. Weichenthal S, Kulka R, Dubeau A, Martin C, Wang D, Dales R (2011) Traffic-related air pollution and acute changes in heart rate variability and respiratory function in urban cyclists. Environ Health Perspect 119(10):1373–1378. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1003321

  34. Wu S, Deng F, Niu J, Huang Q, Liu Y, Guo X (2010) Association of heart rate variability in taxi drivers with marked changes in particulate air pollution in Beijing in 2008. Environ Health Perspect 118(1):87–91. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900818

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Professor Dr. Luiz Carlos Vanderlei for assisting on HRV analysis; PhD Cand. Fernando Rocha Oliveira for assisting on statistical analysis; MS Luis Henrique Base, MS Laura Cristina Pereira Maia, and PhD Cand. Jennifer Yohanna Ferreira de Lima Antão for helping on data collection; and the Laboratório de Escrita Cientifica of Faculdade de Medicina do ABC for supplying Polar RS800Cx wristwatch.

Author information

Correspondence to Juliana Regis da Costa e Oliveira.

Ethics declarations

The project was submitted and approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo — Escola Paulista de Medicina (protocol number 1.113.059) and followed the resolution 466/12 of the National Health Council 12/12/2012 (Brazil) and the Principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Study association

This article is part of the thesis of doctorate submitted by Juliana Régis da Costa e Oliveira, from Escola Paulista de Medicina/Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Regis da Costa e Oliveira, J., Base, L.H., Maia, L.C.P. et al. Geometric indexes of heart rate variability in healthy individuals exposed to long-term air pollution. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 4170–4177 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06965-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Environmental pollution
  • Air pollution
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Autonomic nervous system