Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) was synthesized via a sol-gel hydrothermal method using Na2Si2O3·9H2O and TiCl4 as silicon and titanium sources. The effects of pH, silicon concentration, hydrothermal temperature, and time on the CST synthesis were studied at a fixed molar ratio of silicon:titanium (0.98:1). Pure nano-CST crystals were synthesized at pH = 12.5, silicon concentration of 5 g L−1, 170 °C for 7 days. The average CST particle size was < 100 nm, with a Sr2+/Cs+ distribution coefficient up to 1.9 × 106 mL g−1/9.4 × 103 mL g−1 under the optimum conditions. In addition, nano-CST absorbed Sr2+/Cs+ over a wide pH range. The nano-CST also displayed a much faster equilibrium time, 4 h, as compared with previous studies. Furthermore, nano-CST adsorption of Sr2+/Cs+ followed a Langmuir adsorption model and was consistent with pseudo-second-order kinetics.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Anthony RG, Dosch RG, Gu D, et al (1994). Use of silicotitanates for removing cesium and strontium from defense waste[J]. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 33(11): 2702-2705. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie00035a020
Alamudy HA, Cho K (2018) Selective adsorption of cesium from an aqueous solution by a montmorillonite-prussian blue hybrid. Chem Eng J 349:595–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.05.137
Alencar LM, de Oliveira LH, Backes R, Rosa TM, de Oliveira PR, Bezerra da Silva RA, Goncalves Trindade MA (2017) Liquid-liquid extraction coupled to batch injection analysis for electroanalysis of levofloxacin at low concentration level. Electroanalysis 29(11):2559–2564. https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.201700364
Anirudhan TS, Shainy F, Deepa JR (2019) Effective removal of Cobalt(II) ions from aqueous solutions and nuclear industry wastewater using sulfhydryl and carboxyl functionalised magnetite nanocellulose composite: batch adsorption studies. Chem Ecol 35(3):235–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/02757540.2018.1532999
Bu J, Teresa RG, Brown KG, Sanchez F (2019) Adsorption mechanisms of cesium at calcium-silicate-hydrate surfaces using molecular dynamics simulations. J Nucl Mater 515:35–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.12.007
Buga C, Hunyadi M, Gacsi Z, Hegedus C, Hakl J, Schmidt U, Ding S-J, Csik A (2019) Calcium silicate layer on titanium fabricated by electrospray deposition. Mater Sci Eng C-Mater Biol Appl 98:401–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.01.011
Caceres-Jensen L, Rodriguez-Becerra J, Parra-Rivero J, Escudey M, Barrientos L, Castro-Castillo V (2013) Sorption kinetics of diuron on volcanic ash derived soils. J Hazard Mater 261:602–613. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.07.073
Celestian AJ, Parise JB, Smith RI, Toby BH, Clearfield A (2007) Role of the hydroxyl-water hydrogen-bond network in structural transitions and selectivity toward cesium in Cs-0.38(D1.08H0.54)SiTi2O7 center dot(D0.86H0.14)(2)O crystalline silicotitanate. Inorg Chem 46(4):1081–1089. https://doi.org/10.1021/ic0611387
Celestian AJ, Kubicki JD, Hanson J, Clearfiel A, Parise JB (2008a) ChemInform abstract: the mechanism responsible for extraordinary Cs ion selectivity in crystalline silicotitanate. Cheminform 39(49):11689. https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.200849205
Celestian AJ, Kubicki JD, Hanson J, Clearfield A, Parise JB (2008b) The mechanism responsible for extraordinary Cs ion selectivity in crystalline silicotitanate. J Am Chem Soc 130(35):11689–11694. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja801134a
Celestian AJ, Lively J, Xu W (2019) In situ Cs and H exchange into gaidonnayite and proposed mechanisms of ion diffusion. Inorg Chem 58(3):1919–1928. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b02834
Chen M, Zhang F-S, Zhu J (2010) Effective utilization of waste cathode ray tube glass-crystalline silicotitanate synthesis. J Hazard Mater 182(1-3):45–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.135
Chen Y, Xu W, Zhu H, Wei D, Wang N, Li M (2018) Comparison of organic matter removals in single-component and bi-component systems using enhanced coagulation and magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) adsorption. Chemosphere 210:672–682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.055
Chen X, Chen T, Li J, Qiu M, Fu K, Cui Z, Fan Y, Drioli E (2019) Ceramic nanofiltration and membrane distillation hybrid membrane processes for the purification and recycling of boric acid from simulative radioactive waste water. J Membr Sci 579:294–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2019.02.044
Chitra S, Viswanathan S, Rao SVS, Sinha PK (2011) Uptake of cesium and strontium by crystalline silicotitanates from radioactive wastes. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 287(3):955–960. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-010-0867-z
Chitra S, Sudha R, Kalavathi S, Mani AGS, Rao SVS, Sinha PK (2013) Optimization of Nb-substitution and Cs+/Sr+2 ion exchange in crystalline silicotitanates (CST). J Radioanal Nucl Chem 295(1):607–613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-012-1812-0
Clearfield A, Tripathi A, Medvedev D, Celestian AJ, Parise JB (2006) In situ type study of hydrothermally prepared titanates and silicotitanates. J Mater Sci 41(5):1325–1333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-7317-x
Ding S, Zhang L, Li Y, Hou L-A (2019) Fabrication of a novel polyvinylidene fluoride membrane via binding SiO2 nanoparticles and a copper ferrocyanide layer onto a membrane surface for selective removal of cesium. J Hazard Mater 368:292–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.01.065
Foo KY, Hameed BH (2013) Utilization of oil palm biodiesel solid residue as renewable sources for preparation of granular activated carbon by microwave induced KOH activation. Bioresour Technol 130:696–702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.146
Ghalami Z, Ghoulipour V, Khanchi A (2019) Highly efficient capturing and adsorption of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solution by porous organic cage: a combined experimental and theoretical study. Appl Surf Sci 471:726–732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.12.056
Guo Z, Xiong G, Liu L, Li P, Hao L, Cao Y, Tian F (2016) Aerosol-assisted synthesis of hierarchical porous titanosilicate molecular sieve as catalysts for cyclohexene epoxidation. J Porous Mater 23(2):407–413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-015-0094-7
Harada S, Yanagisawa M (2017) Evaluation of a method for removing cesium and reducing the volume of leaf litter from broad-leaved trees contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident during the Great East Japan Earthquake. Chemosphere 172:516–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.139
He G, Li Z, Zhao J, Wang S, Wu H, Guiver MD, Jiang Z (2015) Nanostructured ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells: recent advances and perspectives. Adv Mater 27(36):5280–5295. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201501406
Hu Y, Guo X, Chen C, Wang J (2019) Algal sorbent derived from Sargassum horneri for adsorption of cesium and strontium ions: equilibrium, kinetics, and mass transfer. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 103(6):2833–2843. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09619-z
Jin X, Huang L, Yu S, Ye M, Yuan J, Shen J, Fang WX (2019) Selective electrochemical removal of cesium ion based on nickel hexacyanoferrate/reduced graphene oxide hybrids. Sep Purif Technol 209:65–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2018.07.019
Kancharla S, Sasaki K (2019) Acid tolerant covalently functionalized graphene oxide for the selective extraction of Pd from high-level radioactive liquid wastes. J Mater Chem A 7(9):4561–4573. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ta09849b
Kim H, Kim M, Kim W, Lee W, Kim S (2018) Photocatalytic enhancement of cesium removal by Prussian blue-deposited TiO2. J Hazard Mater 357:449–456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.06.037
Lee U, Choi WN, Kim HR (2019) Radiological impact assessment for workers on treatment of radioactive spent resin from heavy water reactors. J Radiol Prot 39(2):422–442. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab039d
Li N, Zhang L, Chen Y, Ming F et al (2012) Highly efficient, irreversible and selective ion exchange property of layered titanate nanostructures. Adv Funct Mater 22(4):835–841. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201102272
Li Y, Zou G, Yang S, Wang Z, Chen T, Yu X, Guo Q, He R, Duan T, Zhu W (2019) Integration of bio-inspired adsorption and photodegradation for the treatment of organics-containing radioactive wastewater. Chem Eng J 364:139–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.01.169
Mao X, Han FX, Shao X, Guo X, McComb J, Arslan Z, Zhang Z (2016) Electro-kinetic remediation coupled with phytoremediation to remove lead, arsenic and cesium from contaminated paddy soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 125:16–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.11.021
Mu W, Du S, Yu Q, Li X, Wei H, Yang Y, Peng S (2019) Highly efficient removal of radioactive Sr-90 based on sulfonic acid-functionalized alpha-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. Chem Eng J 361:538–546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.110
Park Y, Shin WS, Reddy GS, Shin S-J, Choi S-J (2010) Use of nano crystalline silicotitanate for the removal of Cs, Co and Sr from low-level liquid radioactive waste. J Nanoelectron Optoelectron 5(2):238–242. https://doi.org/10.1166/jno.2010.1101
Poskas P, Kilda R, Simonis A, Jouhara H, Poskas R (2019) Disposal of very low-level radioactive waste: lithuanian case on the approach and long-term safety aspects. Sci Total Environ 667:464–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.373
Shu J, Liu R, Wu H, LiuZ SX, Tao C (2018) Adsorption of methylene blue on modified electrolytic manganese residue: kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics and mechanism analysis. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 82:351–359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.11.020
Siroux B, Wissocq A, Beaucaire C, Latrille C, Petcut C, Calvaire J, Tabarant M, Benedetti MF, Reiller PE (2018) Adsorption of strontium and caesium onto an Na-illite and Na-illite/Na-smectite mixtures: implementation and application of a multi-site ion-exchange model. Appl Geochem 99:65–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.10.024
Sprynskyy M, Buszewski B, Terzyk AP, Namieśnik J (2006) Study of the selection mechanism of heavy metal (Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+) adsorption on clinoptilolite. J Colloid Interface Sci 304(1):21–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.07.068
Vocciante M, D'Auris ADF, Finocchi A, Tagliabue M, Bellettato M, Ferrucci A, Reverberi AP, Ferro S (2018) Adsorption of ammonium on clinoptilolite in presence of competing cations: investigation on groundwater remediation. J Clean Prod 198:480–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.025
Wang Y, Liu Z, Li Y, Bai Z, Liu W, Wang Y, Xu X, Xiao C, Sheng D, Juan D et al (2015) Umbellate distortions of the uranyl coordination environment result in a stable and porous polycatenated framework that can effectively remove cesium from aqueous solutions. J Am Chem Soc 137(19):6144–6147. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b02480
Zhang H, Liu C, Chen L, Dai B (2019) Control of ice crystal growth and its effect on porous structure of chitosan cryogels. Chem Eng Sci 201:50–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2019.02.026
Zhao X, Meng Q, Chen G, Wu Z, Sun G, Yu G, Sheng L, Weng H, Lin M (2018) An acid-resistant magnetic Nb-substituted crystalline silicotitanate for selective separation of strontium and/or cesium ions from aqueous solution. Chem Eng J 352:133–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.06.175
Zheng Z, Anthony RG, Miller JE, et al (1995). Ion exchange of cesium by crystalline silico-titanates[J]. Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc619850/
This work was supported by the Postgraduate Innovation Fund Project by Southwest University of Science and Technology (No. 16ycx038), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21007052), and also the University Students Innovation and Training Program of Sichuan Province (201810619098).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible editor: Tito Roberto Cadaval Jr
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, R., Luo, Z., Tan, Q. et al. Sol-gel hydrothermal synthesis of nano crystalline silicotitanate and its strontium and cesium adsorption. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 4404–4413 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06907-z
- Crystalline silicotitanate
- Hydrothermal synthesis
- Strontium and Cesium