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Superior “green” electrode materials for secondary batteries: through the footprint family indicators to analyze their environmental friendliness

  • Haohui Wu
  • Yuan Gong
  • Yajuan YuEmail author
  • Kai Huang
  • Lei Wang
Research Article
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

As secondary batteries are becoming the popular production of industry, especial for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the degree of environmental friendliness will gather increasing attention to their products of the whole life cycle. The research combines the life cycle assessment (LCA) and footprint family definition to establish a framework to calculate the footprint family of secondary battery materials. Through the method, we calculated the values of carbon footprint, water footprint, and ecological footprint about this eight kinds of secondary cathode battery materials with Ni-MH, Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2/C, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/C, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/C, LiFePO4/C, LiFe0.98Mn0.02PO4/C, FeF3(H2O)3/C, and NaFePO4/C. When comparing and analyzing their values in each footprint, it can summarize the evaluation method for some secondary batteries by footprint indicators and construct the evaluation system. Through the comprehensive evaluation of footprint family system, the NaFePO4/C battery gets the best performance of three main footprints when combining 1 kg of cathode materials, while Ni-MH is opposite. Hence, among these eight batteries environmental impacts evaluation, the NaFePO4/C battery is regarded as the superior “green” battery, albeit the current application is restricted because of the synthesis limitation on large scale and energy density of storage. In LIBs comparison, the FeF3(H2O)3 material shows its characteristics of environmental friendliness, which is expected to be a greener battery material of LIB. In conventional LIBs, the iron-containing cathode materials show lower environmental burden than ternary cathode materials. We can reduce environmental impacts through developing new advanced materials and reducing the content of high sensitivity element in raw materials.

Keywords

Secondary cathode battery materials LIBs LCA Footprint family Element analysis Environmental friendliness 

Acronym

CFP

Carbon footprint

EFP

Ecological footprint

LCA

Life cycle assessment

LFP

Lithium ion phosphate battery

LMO

Lithium manganese oxide battery

NCM

Nickel cobalt and manganese composite material battery

WFP

Water footprint

ECS

Element contribution sensitivity

GHG

Greenhouse gas

LCO

lithium cobalt oxide battery

LIBs

Lithium ion batteries

LNO

Lithium nickel oxide battery

SIBs

Sodium-ion batteries

Notes

Funding information

(1) The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51474033) and (2) the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 9172012).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6865_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (87 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 86 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haohui Wu
    • 1
  • Yuan Gong
    • 2
  • Yajuan Yu
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Kai Huang
    • 3
    • 4
  • Lei Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science & EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Metallurgical Industry Planning and Research InstituteBeijingChina
  3. 3.School for Environment and SustainabilityUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina

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