Effects of short-term exposure of paracetamol in the gonads of blue mussels Mytilus edulis
A growing body of literature suggests that pharmaceutical contamination poses an increasing risk to marine ecosystems. Paracetamol or acetaminophen is the most widely used medicine in the world and has recently been detected in seawater. Here, we present the results of 7 days’ exposure of blue mussel adults to 40 ng/L, 250 ng/L and 100 μg/L of paracetamol. Histopathology shows that haemocytic infiltration is the most observed condition in the exposed mussels. The mRNA expression of VTG, V9, ER2, HSP70, CASP8, BCL2 and FAS in mussel gonads present different patterns of downregulation. VTG and CASP8 mRNA expression show downregulation in all exposed mussels, irrespective of sex. The V9, HSP70, BCL2 and FAS transcripts follow a concentration-dependent variation in gene expression and may therefore be considered good biomarker candidates. ER2 mRNA expression shows a downregulated trend, with a clearer dose-response relationship in males. In conclusion, this study suggests that paracetamol has the potential to alter the expression of several genes related to processes occurring in the reproductive system and may therefore impair reproduction in blue mussels.
KeywordsShort-term exposure Paracetamol Blue mussels Gene expression Histology Seawater Pharmaceuticals Marine pollution
The authors would like to thank Darren McCabe and Dr. Nicholas Stewart for their assistance.
This research is funded by the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education (MRTHE) Republic of Indonesia through the Research and Innovation in Science and Technology Project (RISET-Pro).
- Allavena G, Cuomo F, Baumgartner G, Bele T, Sellgren AY, Oo KS, Johnson K, Gogvadze V, Zhivotovsky B, Kaminskyy VO (2018) Suppressed translation as a mechanism of initiation of CASP8 (caspase 8)-dependent apoptosis in autophagy-deficient NSCLC cells under nutrient limitation. Autophagy 14:252–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cubero-Leon E, Ciocan CM (2014) Mussels as a tool to monitor pollution. In: Nowak J, Kozlowski M (eds) Mussels: Ecology, Life Habits and Control. Nova Science Publishers, United States, pp 77–99Google Scholar
- Hassan M, Watari H, Abualmaaty A, Ohba Y, Sakuragi N (2014) Apoptosis and molecular targeting therapy in cancer. Biomed Res Int 2014:150845–150823Google Scholar
- Jozwiak-Bebenista M, Nowak JZ (2014) Paracetamol: mechanism of action, applications and safety concern. Acta Pol Pharm Drug Res 71:11–23Google Scholar
- Martinović-Weigelt D, Mehinto AC, Ankley GT, Berninger JP, Collette TW, Davis JM, Denslow ND, Durhan EJ, Eid E, Ekman DR, Jensen KM, Kahl MD, LaLone CA, Teng Q, Villeneuve DL (2017) Derivation and evaluation of putative adverse outcome pathways for the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on reproductive processes in female fish. Toxicol Sci 156:344–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pirrone C, Rossi F, Cappello S, Borgese M, Mancini G, Bernardini G, Gornati R (2018) Evaluation of biomarkers in Mytilus galloprovincialis as an integrated measure of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) system efficiency in mitigating the impact of oily wastewater discharge to marine environment: a microcosm approach. Aquat Toxicol 198:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Porte C, Janer G, Lorusso LC, Ortiz-Zarragoitia M, Cajaraville MP, Fossi MC, Canesi L (2006) Endocrine disruptors in marine organisms: Approaches and perspectives. Comp Biochem Physiol C: Toxicol Pharmacol 143:303–315Google Scholar
- Roberts E, Delgado Nunes V, Buckner S, Latchem S, Constanti M, Miller P, Doherty M, Zhang W, Birrell F, Porcheret M, Dziedzic K, Bernstein I, Wise E, Conaghan PG (2016) Paracetamol: not as safe as we thought? A systematic literature review of observational studies. Ann Rheum Dis 75:552–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Viarengo A, Lowe D, Bolognesi C, Fabbri E, Koehler A (2007) The use of biomarkers in biomonitoring: a 2-tier approach assessing the level of pollutant-induced stress syndrome in sentinel organisms. Comp Biochem Physiol C: Toxicol Pharmacol 146:281–300Google Scholar
- Zhang S, Zhang Q, Darisaw S, Ehie O, Wang G (2007) Simultaneous quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Mississippi river water, in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Chemosphere 66:1057–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar