Effect of diurnal temperature range on outpatient visits for common cold in Shanghai, China

  • Yuxia MaEmail author
  • Sixu Yang
  • Zhiang Yu
  • Haoran Jiao
  • Yifan Zhang
  • Bingji Ma
  • Ji Zhou
Research Article


To evaluate the correlations between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and the number of outpatient visits for common cold from Jan. 1, 2008, to Dec. 31, 2010, in the Shanghai metro area; we used a distributed lag non-linear model together with a Poisson regression model. The controlling factors included long-term trends and day of the week in outpatient visits for common cold and the selected weather elements. The entire study group was divided into three different age subgroups, including ≤ 15, 15–65, and ≥ 65 years old. We found some non-linear J-patterns between DTR and daily outpatient visits for common cold. At lag 0 day, the number of outpatient visits for common cold would increase by 11.1% per 1 °C increase in DTR. The greater the DTR, the more it affects outpatient visits for common cold, especially for the ≥ 65 years age group. In addition, DTR plays a more important role in outpatient visits for common cold in spring and winter compared with other seasons of the year. Our study showed that DTR is a risk factor that contributes to common cold. Results in this study can provide scientific evidence for the local authorities in improving preventive measures of the healthcare system.


Diurnal temperature range Distributed lag non-linear model Common cold 


Funding information

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41975141, 91744311, and 41561037), and Funds for the Science of Environmental Protection (2018-007).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuxia Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sixu Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhiang Yu
    • 1
  • Haoran Jiao
    • 1
  • Yifan Zhang
    • 1
  • Bingji Ma
    • 1
  • Ji Zhou
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Atmospheric Sciences, Key Laboratory of Semi-Arid Climate ChangeMinistry of Education, Lanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and HealthShanghaiChina

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