Sorption of ionic and neutral species of pharmaceuticals to loessial soil amended with biochars
To clarify the impact of biochar amendment on soil sorption for coexisting pharmaceuticals, wheat straw-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C (labeled as WS300 and WS700, respectively) were prepared. Batch experiments on ketoprofen (KTP), atenolol (ATL) and carbamazepine (CBZ) sorption to biochars, loessial soil and biochar-amended soils were conducted. The results indicated that sorption affinity of different species of pharmaceuticals to WS300 and WS700 was in the order of cationic ATL > neutral CBZ > anionic KTP. Cationic ATL had the highest sorption to biochars due to electrostatic attraction. Coexisting ATL, CBZ and KTP competed for the shared adsorption sites on carbonized phase of biochars, and π–π interactions were proposed to be the main sorption mechanism. Sorption coefficients (Kd) and nonlinearity of ATL, CBZ and KTP to soil increased when biochar was added (5% by weight), especially for WS700 with higher specific surface area. Kd values of the three pharmaceuticals to WS700-amended soil in either single solute or bisolute system were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those to soil, indicating the promoting role of WS700 in sorption of coexisting pharmaceuticals in soil. The study demonstrated the enhanced and competitive sorption of ionic and neutral species of pharmaceuticals to soil amended with biochars, which is helpful in designing biochar as effective sorbents for immobilization of pharmaceuticals in soil remediation.
KeywordsBiochar amendment Loessial soil Pharmaceuticals Sorption Bisolute system Mechanism
Wheat straw-derived biochar at 300 °C
Wheat straw-derived biochar at 700 °C
High performance liquid chromatography
Specific surface area
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41472231) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2652017181).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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