Physiological damages of Sargassum cymosum and Hypnea pseudomusciformis exposed to trace metals from mining tailing
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The damages of Mariana’s mining mud in the physiology of the brown algae Sargassum cymosum and its main epiphytic, the red algae Hypnea pseudomusciformis, were evaluated by controlled essays. Seaweeds were exposed to presence or absence of mud, isolated or in biological association, for 5 and 15 days. Measured parameters were growth rates, biochemical descriptors, and the chemical investigation of concentration and metal profile of the mud dissolved in seawater. Results showed that the highest values for metals were Al > Fe > Mn > Zn in both exposure periods. The mud also affected the growth rate with lethality in both isolated and associative treatments with H. pseudomusciformis after 15 days. According to our redundancy analysis (RDA), the profile and concentration of all metallic elements can induce different physiological responses of the organisms. We were able to observe a higher physiological adaptive ability of S. cymosum against the long-term presence of metals by the synthesis of phenolic compounds, while the deviation of metabolic routes in H. pseudomusciformis can be addressed as the main responsible for its lethality. Moreover, the presence of Hypnea in associative treatments reduces Sargassum’s detoxification ability. The present results reinforce the importance of biological interaction studies in a context of physiological resilience against mining mud pollution and mutual influences of species over the individual ability to avoid oxidative stress.
KeywordsBenthic ecology Biochemical markers Mariana’s mining residuals Physiological damages Pollution tolerance Trace metals
Giulia Burle Costa would like to thank for infrastructural and technical collaboration from Vegetal Morphogenesis and Biochemistry Laboratory (LMBV, CCA – UFSC) and Ecotoxicology Laboratory (ICB – FURG) for supporting analyses.
The authors declare that all contributed equally for the research and/or manuscript preparation, and that also have approved the final format of present work prior to submission. The role of each author in this work is described below:
• Giulia Burle Costa: experimental work execution and manuscript preparation;
• Fernanda Ramlov: biochemical analyses collaboration and manuscript preparation;
• Bruna Ramos: experimental work execution and manuscript preparation;
• Gabrielle Koerich: experimental work execution and manuscript preparation;
• Lidiane Gouvea: experimental work execution;
• Patrícia Gomes Costa: chemical analyses collaboration and manuscript preparation;
• Adalto Bianchini: manuscript preparation;
• Marcelo Maraschin: biochemical analyses collaboration and manuscript preparation;
• Paulo A. Horta: project proposition, experimental work collaboration, and manuscript preparation.
This work was supported by grants from the Boticário Foundation (1051-20152); FAPESC-Foundation support research and innovation in the State of Santa Catarina; Long-term Program of Ecological Research - Coastal Habitats of Espírito Santo State (PELD, CNPq grant 441243/2016-9); CNPq-National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq 306917/2009-2 to P.A. Horta Jr.); Capes-Higher Education Personnel Improvement Coordination (CAPES/PNADB 2338000071/2010-61 to P.A. Horta); Rede Clima- Brazilian Research Network on Global Climate Change; REBENTOS-Habitat monitoring network coastal Benthic and ProspecMar-Islands-Sustainable prospecting in Ocean Islands: Biodiversity, Chemistry, Ecology and Biotechnology; and Petrobras Ambiental, Rede Coral Vivo and REDEALGAS and FAPESP-Foundation support research and innovation in the State of São Paulo (FAPESP, 2014/00012-1). Giulia Burle Costa received a fellowship from CNPq for Sandwich PhD Program (CNPq process 202271/2018-8) and a fellowship from CAPES. Gabrielle Koerich received a fellowship from CAPES.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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