Advertisement

Recycling of the scrap LCD panels by converting into the InBO3 nanostructure product

  • Mohammad AssefiEmail author
  • Samane Maroufi
  • Veena Sahajwalla
Research Article
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

Preparation of the value-added products from e-waste resources is an important step in the recycling process. The present paper aims to propose a methodology for the recovery of In from scrap LCD panel via preparation of InBO3 nanostructure. Discarded LCD panel was subjected to a recycling process through crushing, milling, and oxalic acid leaching to prepare In2(C2O4)3·6H2O. Through the leaching process, B(OH)3 from glass part (alumina borosilicate) has been leached out along with indium oxalate hydrated. Further thermal treatment on these extracted materials at 600 °C could result in the formation of InBO3 nanostructures with an average particle size of 20 nm. A multistep mechanism based on thermodynamic calculations for the recycling of the InBO3 form extracted precursors was proposed.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

LCD panel recycling Indium recovery Indium borate 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thankfully acknowledge the technical support by Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre (MWAC), Electron Microscopy Unit (EMU), Solid State & Elemental Analysis Unit (SSEAU) and especially Mr. Sean Lim, Ms. Dorothy Yu, Dr. Saroj Bhattacharyya, Dr. Qiang Zhu, and Dr. Yin Yao at the University of New South Wales, Australia.

Funding information

The financial support for this research was provided by the Australian Research Council through Laureate Fellowship FL140100215.

References

  1. Assefi M, Maroufi S, Mayyas M, Sahajwalla V (2018a) Recycling of Ni-Cd batteries by selective isolation and hydrothermal synthesis of porous NiO nanocuboid. J Environ Chem Eng 6:4671–4675.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2018.07.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Assefi M, Maroufi S, Nekouei RK, Sahajwalla V (2018b) Selective recovery of indium from scrap LCD panels using macroporous resins. J Clean Prod 180:814–822.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chakankar M, Su CH, Hocheng H (2018) Leaching of metals from end-of-life solar cells. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 26:29524–29531.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1918-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chandrasekaran SR, Avasarala S, Murali D, et al (2018) Materials and energy recovery from e-waste plastics. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:4594–4602. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b03282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen Y, Zhang L, Xu Z (2017) Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels. J Hazard Mater 327:55–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.12.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi D, Hong SJ, Son Y (2014) Characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles recovered by lift-off method from TFT-LCD panel scraps. Materials (Basel) 7:7662–7669.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7127662 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi D, Yun WS, Son Y (2016) Recovery of ITO nanopowder from a waste ITO target by a simple co-precipitation method. RSC Adv 6:80994–81000.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ra13990f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Faraci G, Pennisi AR, Puglisi R et al (2001) Confinement of InO3, InO6, and InBO3 clusters in a glass matrix Giuseppe. Phys Rev B 65:024101.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.65.024101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fontana D, Forte F, De Carolis R, Grosso M (2015) Materials recovery from waste liquid crystal displays : a focus on indium. Waste Manag 45:325–333.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.07.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fröhlich P, Lorenz T, Martin G, et al (2017) Valuable metals—recovery processes, current trends, and recycling strategies. Angew Chemie Int Ed 56:2544–2580. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201605417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fu J, Zhang H, Zhang A, Jiang G (2018) E-waste recycling in China: a challenging field. Environ Sci Technol 52:6727–6728.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b02329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hadi P, Xu M, Lin CSK, Hui CW, McKay G (2015) Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization. J Hazard Mater 283:234–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.09.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He Y, Ma E, Xu Z (2014) Recycling indium from waste liquid crystal display panel by vacuum carbon-reduction. J Hazard Mater 268:185–190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang P, Li J, Zhang S, Chen C, Han Y, Liu N, Xiao Y, Wang H, Zhang M, Yu Q, Liu Y, Wang W (2011) Effects of lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium on the nuclei and mitochondria of hepatocytes: accumulation and oxidative damage. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 31:25–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2010.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. IHS Incorporation (2018) Global display panel area demand from 2016 to 2017 (in million square meters), by type of deviceGoogle Scholar
  16. Itoh S, Maruyama K (2011) Recoveries of metallic indium and tin from ITO by means of pyrometallurgy. High Temp Mater Process 30:317–322.  https://doi.org/10.1515/HTMP.2011.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim K, Kim K, Hwang J (2015) Characterization of ceramic tiles containing LCD waste glass. Ceram Int 42:7626–7631.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.01.172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kolias K, Hahladakis JN, Gidarakos E (2014) Assessment of toxic metals in waste personal computers. Waste Manag 34:1480–1487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.04.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koo S-J, Ju C-S (2018) Preparation of indium oxide from waste indium tin oxide targets by oxalic acid. Korean J Chem Eng 35:251–256.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-017-0231-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee CT (2013) Production of alumino-borosilicate foamed glass body from waste LCD glass. J Ind Eng Chem 19:1916–1925.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.02.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee CH, Jeong MK, Fatih Kilicaslan M et al (2013) Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM. Waste Manag 33:730–734.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Y, Liu Z, Li Q et al (2011) Recovery of indium from used indium-tin oxide (ITO) targets. Hydrometallurgy 105:207–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2010.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma C, Yu J, Wang B et al (2016) Chemical recycling of brominated flame retarded plastics from e-waste for clean fuels production: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 61:433–450.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.04.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maroufi S, Assefi M, Sahajwalla V (2018a) Synthesis of 2D rare earth elements oxide nano-sheets from Nd-Fe-B magnets. Resour Conserv Recycl 139:172–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.08.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maroufi S, Mayyas M, Nekouei RK et al (2018b) Thermal nanowiring of E-waste: a sustainable route for synthesizing green Si3N4 nanowires. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:3765–3772.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b04139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maroufi S, Nekouei RK, Hossain R, et al (2018c) Recovery of rare earth (i.e., La, Ce, Nd, and Pr) oxides from end-of-life Ni-MH battery via thermal isolation. ACS Sustain Chem Eng acssuschemeng.8b02097. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moulder JF, Stickle WF, Sobol PE, Bomben KD (1992) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: a reference book of standard spectra for identification and interpretation of XPS data. Surf Interface Anal 261. doi: 9780962702624Google Scholar
  28. Murphy M, Walczak MS, Hussain H et al (2016) An ex situ study of the adsorption of calcium phosphate from solution onto TiO2(110) and Al2O3(0001). Surf Sci 646:146–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2015.08.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nekouei RK, Pahlevani F, Rajarao R et al (2018) Two-step pre-processing enrichment of waste printed circuit boards: mechanical milling and physical separation. J Clean Prod 184:1113–1124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Park KS, Sato W, Grause G et al (2009) Recovery of indium from In2O3 and liquid crystal display powder via a chloride volatilization process using polyvinyl chloride. Thermochim Acta 493:105–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2009.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rocchetti L, Amato A, Fonti V, Ubaldini S, de Michelis I, Kopacek B, Vegliò F, Beolchini F (2015) Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels. Waste Manag 42:180–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.04.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rocchetti L, Amato A, Beolchini F (2016) Recovery of indium from liquid crystal displays. J Clean Prod 116:299–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tahir M, Amin NS (2015) Indium-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles for photocatalytic CO 2 reduction with H 2 O vapors to CH 4. Appl Catal B Environ 162:98–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.06.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. TrendForce Corporation (2018) Production capacity in area for large-size LCD panels worldwide from 2015 to 2020 (in million square meters)Google Scholar
  35. Virolainen S, Ibana D, Paatero E (2011) Recovery of indium from indium tin oxide by solvent extraction. Hydrometallurgy 107:56–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2011.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Voron’ko YK, Dzhurinskii BF, Kokh AE et al (2005) Raman spectroscopy and structure of InBO3. Inorg Mater 41:984–989.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10789-005-0249-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang H, Gu Y, Wu Y, Zhang YN, Wang W (2015a) An evaluation of the potential yield of indium recycled from end-of-life LCDs: A case study in China. Waste Manag 46:480–487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.07.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang L, Zhu J, Yang H et al (2015b) Fabrication of hierarchical graphene@Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline quaternary composite and its improved electrochemical performance. J Alloys Compd 634:232–238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.02.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yao Z, Ling T, Sarker PK et al (2018) Recycling di ffi cult-to-treat e-waste cathode-ray-tube glass as construction and building materials : a critical review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 81:595–604.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yu Y, Tang Y, Yuan J et al (2014) Fabrication of N-TiO2/InBO3 heterostructures with enhanced visible photocatalytic performance. J Phys Chem C 118:13545–13551.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp412375z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yuan J, Wu Q, Zhang P et al (2012) Synthesis of indium borate and its application in photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol. Environ Sci Technol 46:2330–2336.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es203333k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zeng X, Wang F, Sun X, Li J (2015) Recycling indium from scraped glass of liquid crystal display: process optimizing and mechanism exploring. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:1306–1312.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zeng X, Gong R, Chen WQ, Li J (2016) Uncovering the recycling potential of “new” WEEE in China. Environ Sci Technol 50:1347–1358.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05446 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang K, Wu Y, Wang W et al (2015) Recycling indium from waste LCDs: a review. Resour Conserv Recycl 104:276–290.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang Y, Xu X, Chen A et al (2018) Maternal urinary cadmium levels during pregnancy associated with risk of sex-dependent birth outcomes from an e-waste pollution site in China. Reprod Toxicol 75:49–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Assefi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samane Maroufi
    • 1
  • Veena Sahajwalla
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology (SMaRT), School of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations