Characteristics of indoor and outdoor fine particles in heating period at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Harbin, China
- 36 Downloads
Concurrent indoor–outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Harbin, a megacity in the northeast of China. Chemical constituents of indoor–outdoor PM2.5 were determined. Infiltration factors (FINF) of all sites were calculated according to the indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of PM2.5 based on the regression analysis. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is applied to determine the indoor–outdoor relationship. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) was calculated on the basis of organic carbon to elemental carbon (OC/EC) ratios. The mean concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were 166.4 ± 32.5 μg/m3 and 228.4 ± 83.7 μg/m3, respectively, during the heating period. OC/EC and potassium ion to elemental carbon (K+/EC) ratios verified that biomass was an important source in Harbin especially for rural sites. The nitrate to sulfate (NO3−/SO42−) ratio indicates the higher contribution of traffic emissions in urban sites. Cr was the only species that exceeded the guidelines of WHO 2002, which was mainly emitted from coal and oil combustion. SOC/OC and NO3−/SO42− ratios, and ion-balanced acidity (the ratio of cation to anion, R+/−) showed a large urban–rural and indoor–outdoor difference. The highest SOC/OC ratio was found at urban sites, up to 38.3% for indoors. SOC/OC ratios and R+/− values of indoor environments were higher, which is attributed to the conducive condition of forming the secondary pollutants during the heating period. The results of LDA indicated that the distributions of the chemical components of PM2.5 at three sites were statistically dissimilar.
KeywordsIndoor–outdoor Fine particle Chemical composition Cold region Urban–rural
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 51778181) and Harbin Science-Technology Bureau (Project NO. 2013AA4AS045).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bajo S (1991) Dissolving matrices. CRC, Preconcentration techniques for trace elementsGoogle Scholar
- Han Y, Qi M, Chen Y, Shen H, Liu J, Huang Y, Chen H, Liu W, Wang X, Liu J, Xing B, Tao S (2015a) Influences of ambient air PM2.5 concentration and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a residential apartment in Beijing using a new approach. Environ Pollut 205:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Han Y, Qi M, Chen YL, Shen HZ, Liu J, Huang Y, Chen H, Liu WX, Wang XL, Liu JF, Xing BS, Tao S (2015b) Influences of ambient air PM2.5 concentration and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a residential apartment in Beijing using a new approach. Environ Pollut 205:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hanninen O, Hoek G, Mallone S, Chellini E, Katsouyanni K, Gariazzo C, Cattani G, Marconi A, Molnar P, Bellander T, Jantunen M (2011) Seasonal patterns of outdoor PM infiltration into indoor environments: review and meta-analysis of available studies from different climatological zones in Europe. Air Qual Atmos Hlth 4:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 109: Outdoor Air Pollution. World Health Organization / International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
- Lin P, Hu M, Deng Z, Slanina J, Han S, Kondo Y, Takegawa N, Miyazaki Y, Zhao Y, Sugimoto N (2009): Seasonal and diurnal variations of organic carbon in PM2.5 in Beijing and the estimation of secondary organic carbon. J Geophys Res-Atmos 114Google Scholar
- Tao J, Zhang LM, Zhang RJ, Wu YF, Zhang ZS, Zhang XL, Tang YX, Cao JJ, Zhang YH (2016) Uncertainty assessment of source attribution of PM2.5 and its water-soluble organic carbon content using different biomass burning tracers in positive matrix factorization analysis - a case study in Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ 543:326–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhu YH, Yang LX, Meng CP, Yuan Q, Yan C, Dong C, Sui X, Yao L, Yang F, Lu YL, Wang WX (2015) Indoor/outdoor relationships and diurnal/nocturnal variations in water-soluble ion and PAH concentrations in the atmospheric PM2.5 of a business office area in Jinan, a heavily polluted city in China. Atmos Res 153:276–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar