Biosynthesized Fe- and Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn for enhancement of sonocatalytic degradation of Congo red
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Nowadays, the current synthesis techniques used in industrial production of nanoparticles have been generally regarded as nonenvironmentally friendly. Consequently, the biosynthesis approach has been proposed as an alternative to reduce the usage of hazardous chemical compounds and harsh reaction conditions in the production of nanoparticles. In this work, pure, iron (Fe)-doped and silver (Ag)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through the green route using Clitoria ternatea Linn. The optical, chemical, and physical properties of the biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles were then analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), zeta potential measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface analysis. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles were crystallized with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and possessed smaller particle sizes than those of commercially or chemically produced samples. The existence of biomolecules to act as reducing and stabilizing agents from C. ternatea Linn aqueous extract was confirmed using FTIR analysis. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles mainly comprised of negatively charged groups and responsible for moderately stable dispersion of the nanoparticles. All these properties were favorable for the sonocatalytic degradation of Congo red. Sonocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles was studied through the degradation of 10 mg/L Congo red using ultrasonic irradiation at 45 kHz and 80 W. The results showed that the sonocatalytic degradation efficiency of Congo red in the presence of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles prepared at 50 °C for 1 h could achieve 88.76% after 1 h. The sonocatalytic degradation efficiency of Congo red in the presence of Ag-doped ZnO was accelerated to 94.42% after 10 min which might be related to the smallest band gap energy (3.02 eV) and the highest specific surface area (10.31 m2/g) as well as pore volume (0.0781 cm3/g). Lastly, the biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles especially Ag-doped ZnO offered significant antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli which indicated its ability to inhibit the normal growth and replication of bacterial cells. These results affirmed that the biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles could be used as an alternative to the current chemical compounds and showed a superior sonocatalytic activity toward degradation of Congo red.
KeywordsClitoria ternatea Linn ZnO nanoparticles Characteristics Ag and Fe doping Sonocatalytic degradation Congo red Antibacterial
The authors gratefully acknowledge gratefully the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2018/TK10/UTAR/02/2) by the Ministry of Education (MOE) Malaysia and the Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Research Fund (UTARRF/2018-C1/P01) for the financial support on this project and scholarship funding to Ms. Chan Yin Yin, respectively.
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