Addition of zeolite and superphosphate to windrow composting of chicken manure improves fertilizer efficiency and reduces greenhouse gas emission

  • Shuang Peng
  • Huijie Li
  • Qianqian Xu
  • Xiangui Lin
  • Yiming WangEmail author
Research Article


This study investigated the impact of adding zeolite (F), superphosphate (G), and ferrous sulfate (L) in various combinations on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and improving nitrogen conservation during factory-scale chicken manure composting, aimed to identify the combination that optimizes the performance of the process. Chicken manure was mixed with F, G, FL, or FGL and subjected to windrow composting for 46 days. Results showed that global warming potential (GWP) was reduced by 21.9% (F), 22.8% (FL), 36.1% (G), and 39.3% (FGL). Further, the nitrogen content in the final composting product increased by 27.25%, 9.45%, and 21.86% in G, FL, and FGL amendments, respectively. The fertilizer efficiency of the compost product was assessed by measuring the biomass of plants grown in it, and it was consistent with the nitrogen content. N2O emission was negligible during composting, and 98% of the released GHGs comprised CO2 and CH4. Reduction in GHG emission was mainly achieved by reducing CH4 emission. The addition of FL, G, and FGL caused a clear shift in the abundance of dominant methanogens; particularly, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter decreased and that of Methanobacterium and Methanocella increased, which was correlated with CH4 emissions. Meanwhile, the changes in moisture content, NH4+-N content, and pH level also played an important role in the reduction of GHG emission. Based on the effects of nitrogen conservation, fertilizer efficiency improvement, and GHG emission reduction, we conclude that G and FGL are more beneficial than F or FL and suggest these additives for efficient chicken manure composting.


Composting Chicken manure Zeolite Superphosphate Methanogens community 


Funding information

Research in this work was funded by Project of Science and Technology Service Network initiative, Chinese Academy of Sciences (KFJ-STS-QYZD-034), Key Research and Development Projects of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (2017BN05), National Natural Science Foundation of China (41501275), National Key Research and Development Plan (2016YFD0800206), and Natural Science Research Projects in Jiangsu Provincial Colleges and Universities (18KJB210002).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6544_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.9 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 3013 kb)


  1. Awasthi MK, Wang Q, Ren X, Zhao J, Huang H, Awasthi SK, Lahori AH, Li R, Zhou L, Zhang Z (2016) Role of biochar amendment in mitigation of nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emission during sewage sludge composting. Bioresour Technol 219:270–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Awasthi MK, Wang M, Chen H, Wang Q, Zhao J, Ren X, Li DS, Awasthi SK, Shen F, Li R, Zhang Z (2017a) Heterogeneity of biochar amendment to improve the carbon and nitrogen sequestration through reduce the greenhouse gases emissions during sewage sludge composting. Bioresour Technol 224:428–438. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Awasthi MK, Wang M, Pandey A, Chen H, Awasthi SK, Wang Q, Ren X, Lahori AH, Li DS, Li R, Zhang Z (2017b) Heterogeneity of zeolite combined with biochar properties as a function of sewage sludge composting and production of nutrient-rich compost. Waste Manag 68:760–773. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amlinger F, Peyr S, Cuhls C (2008) Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment. Waste Manag Res 26:47–60. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arriaga H, Viguria M, López DM, Merino P (2017) Ammonia and greenhouse gases losses from mechanically turned cattle manure windrows: a regional composting network. J Environ Manag 203:557–563. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balch WE, Fox GE, Magrum LJ, Woese CR, Wolfe RS (1979) Methanogens: reevaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol Rev 43:260–296Google Scholar
  7. Bernal MP, Navarro AF, Sanchez-Monedero MA, Roig A, Cegarra J (1998) Influence of sewage sludge compost stability and maturity on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 30:305–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernal MP, Alburquerque JA, Moral R, Vanotti M, Szogi A, Bernal MP, Martinez J (2009) Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review. Bioresour Technol 100:5444–5453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan MT, Selvam A, Wong JW (2016) Reducing nitrogen loss and salinity during ‘struvite’ food waste composting by zeolite amendment. Bioresour Technol 200:838–844. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen R, Wang Y, Wei S, Wang W, Lin X (2014) Windrow composting mitigated CH4 emissions: characterization of methanogenic and methanotrophic communities in manure management. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 90:575–586. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen R, Wang Y, Wang W, Wei S, Jing Z, Lin X (2015) N2O emissions and nitrogen transformation during windrow composting of dairy manure. J Environ Manag 160:121–127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui E, Wu Y, Zuo Y, Chen H (2016) Effect of different biochars on antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community during chicken manure composting. Bioresour Technol 203:11–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dennehy C, Lawlor PG, Jiang Y, Gardiner GE, Xie S, Nghiem LD, Zhan X (2017) Greenhouse gas emissions from different pig manure management techniques: a critical analysis. Front Environ Sci Eng 11:1–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Feng Y, Lin X, Yu Y, Zhang H, Chu H, Zhu J (2013) Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community. Sci Rep 3:3193. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fukumoto Y, Osada T, Hanajima D, Haga K (2003) Patterns and quantities of NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during swine manure composting without forced aeration––effect of compost pile scale. Bioresour Technol 89:109–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grigatti M, Boanini E, Di Biase G, Marzadori C, Ciavatta C (2017) Effect of iron sulphate on the phosphorus speciation from agro-industrial sludge based and sewage sludge based compost. Waste Manag 69:353–359. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hao X, Chang C, Larney FJ (2004) Carbon, nitrogen balances and greenhouse gas emission during cattle feedlot manure composting. J Environ Qual 33:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. IPCC (2013), Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press. September 2013.
  19. Ji Y, Liu P, Conrad R (2018) Response of fermenting bacterial and methanogenic archaeal communities in paddy soil to progressing rice straw degradation. Soil Biol Biochem 124:70–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ji Y, Fernandez Scavino A, Klose M, Claus P, Conrad R (2015) Functional and structural responses of methanogenic microbial communities in Uruguayan soils to intermittent drainage. Soil Biol Biochem 89:238–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jiang J, Huang Y, Liu X, Huang H (2014) The effects of apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure aerobic composting. Waste Manag 34:1595–1602. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jiang T, Ma X, Tang Q, Yang J, Li G, Schuchardt F (2016) Combined use of nitrification inhibitor and struvite crystallization to reduce the NH3 and N2O emissions during composting. Bioresour Technol 217:210–218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kong Z, Wang X, Liu Q, Li T, Chen X, Chai L, Liu D, Shen Q (2018) Evolution of various fractions during the windrow composting of chicken manure with rice chaff. J Environ Manag 207:366–377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Langille MGI, Zaneveld J, Caporaso JG, McDonald D, Knights D, Reyes JA, Clemente JC, Burkepile DE, Vega Thurber RL, Knight R, Beiko RG, Huttenhower C (2013) Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences. Nat Biotechnol 31:814–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li R, Wang JJ, Zhang Z, Shen F, Zhang G, Qin R, Li X, Xiao R (2012) Nutrient transformations during composting of pig manure with bentonite. Bioresour Technol 121:362–368. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li H, Duan M, Gu J, Zhang Y, Qian X, Ma J, Zhang R, Wang X (2017) Effects of bamboo charcoal on antibiotic resistance genes during chicken manure composting. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 140:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maeda K, Toyoda S, Shimojima R, Osada T, Hanajima D, Morioka R, Yoshida N (2010) Source of nitrous oxide emissions during the cow manure composting process as revealed by isotopomer analysis of and amoA abundance in betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1555–1562. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mancabelli L, Ferrario C, Milani C, Mangifesta M, Turroni F, Duranti S, Lugli GA, Viappiani A, Ossiprandi MC, van Sinderen D, Ventura M (2016) Insights into the biodiversity of the gut microbiota of broiler chickens. Environ Microbiol 18:4727–4738. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Makoto O, Yasuyuki O (2010) Pioneering works in biochar research, Japan. Soil Res 48:489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marzec ME, Wojtysiak D, Połtowicz K, Nowak J, Pedrys R (2016) Study of cholesterol and vitamin E levels in broiler meat from different feeding regimens by TOF-SIMS. Biointerphases 11:02A326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maulini-Duran C, Abraham J, Rodriguez-Perez S, Cerda A, Jimenez-Penalver P, Gea T, Barrena R, Artola A, Font X, Sanchez A (2015) Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale. Bioresour Technol 179:211–218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peng S, Li H, Song D, Lin X, Wang Y (2018) Influence of zeolite and superphosphate as additives on antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial communities during factory-scale chicken manure composting. Bioresour Technol 263:393–401. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Puyuelo B, Gea T, Sánchez A (2010) A new control strategy for the composting process based on the oxygen uptake rate. Chem Eng J 165:161–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Qiu X, Zhou G, Zhang J, Wang W (2019) Microbial community responses to biochar addition when a green waste and manure mix are composted: a molecular ecological network analysis. Bioresour Technol 273:666–671. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H, Kumar P, Mccarl B, Ogle S, O'Mara F, Rice C (2008) Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 363:789–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Szanto GL, Hamelers HV, Rulkens WH, Veeken AH (2007) NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during passively aerated composting of straw-rich pig manure. Bioresour Technol 98:2659–2670. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Villasenor J, Rodriguez L, Fernandez FJ (2011) Composting domestic sewage sludge with natural zeolites in a rotary drum reactor. Bioresour Technol 102:1447–1454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang K, Li X, He C, Chen CL, Bai J, Ren N, Wang JY (2014) Transformation of dissolved organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures during composting. Bioresour Technol 168:222–228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang Q, Wang Z, Awasthi MK, Jiang Y, Li R, Ren X, Zhao J, Shen F, Wang M, Zhang Z (2016a) Evaluation of medical stone amendment for the reduction of nitrogen loss and bioavailability of heavy metals during pig manure composting. Bioresour Technol 220:297–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang Q, Li R, Cai H, Awasthi MK, Zhang Z, Wang JJ, Ali A, Amanullah M (2016b) Improving pig manure composting efficiency employing Ca-bentonite. Ecol Eng 87:157–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang Q, Awasthi MK, Ren X, Zhao J, Li R, Wang Z, Chen H, Wang M, Zhang Z (2017) Comparison of biochar, zeolite and their mixture amendment for aiding organic matter transformation and nitrogen conservation during pig manure composting. Bioresour Technol 245:300–308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang Q, Awasthi MK, Ren X, Zhao J, Li R, Wang Z, Wang M, Chen H, Zhang Z (2018) Combining biochar, zeolite and wood vinegar for composting of pig manure: the effect on greenhouse gas emission and nitrogen conservation. Waste Manag 74:221–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei L, Shutao W, Jin Z, Tong X (2014) Biochar influences the microbial community structure during tomato stalk composting with chicken manure. Bioresour Technol 154:148–154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wolter M, Prayitno S, Schuchardt F (2004) Greenhouse gas emission during storage of pig manure on a pilot scale. Bioresour Technol 95:235–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yang F, Li G, Shi H, Wang Y (2015) Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting. Waste Manag 36:70–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang L, Zhang S, Chen Z, Wen Q, Wang Y (2016) Maturity and security assessment of pilot-scale aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) with sewage sludge. Bioresour Technol 204:185–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yuan J, Xiang J, Liu D, Kang H, He T, Kim S, Lin Y, Freeman C, Ding W (2019) Rapid growth in greenhouse gas emissions from the adoption of industrial-scale aquaculture. Nat Clim Chang 9:318–322. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zmora-Nahum S, Markovitch O, Tarchitzky J, Chen Y (2005) Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a parameter of compost maturity. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2109–2116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang Y, Li H, Gu J, Qian X, Yin Y, Li Y, Zhang R, Wang X (2016) Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting. Bioresour Technol 219:545–551. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang D, Luo W, Yuan J, Li G, Luo Y (2017) Effects of woody peat and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting. Waste Manag 68:56–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang L, Sun X (2014) Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar. Bioresour Technol 171:274–284. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang J, Jiao S, Lu Y (2018) Biogeographic distribution of bacterial, archaeal and methanogenic communities and their associations with methanogenic capacity in Chinese wetlands. Sci Total Environ 622-623:664–675. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhou B, Wang Y, Feng Y, Lin X (2016) The application of rapidly composted manure decreases paddy CH4 emission by adversely influencing methanogenic archaeal community: a greenhouse study. J Soils Sediments 16:1889–1900. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhu-Barker X, Bailey SK, Paw UK, Burger M, Horwath WR (2017) Greenhouse gas emissions from green waste composting windrow. Waste Manag 59:70–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Environment and EcologyJiangsu Open UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations