Dinitrodiazophenol industrial wastewater treatment by a sequential ozone Fenton process

  • Zhepei Gu
  • Xuqin Pan
  • Shengpeng Guo
  • Aiping ZhangEmail author
Short Research and Discussion Article


The ozonation process is efficient in degrading aromatic substances and substances with unsaturated bonds, but cannot effectively destroy small-molecule organic compounds, which accumulate. Likewise, the Fenton process is a classic wastewater treatment method, but requires strict pH control and produces secondary pollution when the concentration of organic substances is high. In this study, we applied a 1stO3-2ndFenton sequential process to treat diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) industrial wastewater and provide suitable reaction conditions for Fenton process. For the 1stOzone process, organics removal increased as O3 dosage increased. At optimized operation, the 1stO3 process provided an acidic effluent (pH = 3) and reduced the organics concentration to a level suitable for the 2ndFenton process. Benzene ring substances as well as nitro group and diazo group compounds were greatly degraded in the 1stO3 process and were further mineralized in the 2ndFenton process. Additionally, the biodegradability of DDNP industrial wastewater was greatly improved. This is the first reported time that ozonation and the Fenton process have been integrated sequentially to treat an explosive production wastewater. The study provides a feasible chemical oxidation method for treating DDNP industrial wastewater by simply combining two classic treatment processes.


Ozone Fenton DDNP Sequential process Wastewater treatment 


Funding information

The authors are grateful for the support from China’s National Students’ Platform for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program (201810636068).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6469_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 34 kb)


  1. Cao J, Xiong Z, Yuan Y, Lai B, Yang P (2016) Treatment of wastewater derived from dinitrodiazophenol (DDNP) manufacturing by the Fe/Cu/O3 process. RSC Adv 6:94467–94475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen W, Zhang A, Jiang G, Li Q (2019) Transformation and degradation mechanism of landfill leachates in a combined process of SAARB and ozonation. Waste Manag 85:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. De la Obra Jiménez I, Esteban García B, Rivas Ibáñez G, Casas López JL, Sánchez Pérez JA (2019) Continuous flow disinfection of WWTP secondary effluents by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH in raceway pond reactors at pilot plant scale. Appl Catal B Environ 247:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry–Initiating explosive material and relative composition (2002), Ministry of Ecology and Environmental of the People’s Republic of China; General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China.Google Scholar
  5. dos Santos A, Viante MF, Pochapski DJ, Downs AJ, Almeida CAP (2018) Enhanced removal of p-nitrophenol from aqueous media by montmorillonite clay modified with a cationic surfactant. J Hazard Mater 355:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gu Z, Chen W, Li Q, Zhang A (2019) Kinetics study of dinitrodiazophenol industrial wastewater treatment by a microwave-coupled ferrous-activated persulfate process. Chemosphere 215:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ji F, Yin H, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Lai B (2018) Treatment of military primary explosives wastewater containing lead styphnate (LS) and lead azide (LA) by mFe0-PS-O3 process. J Clean Prod 188:860–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lai B, Zhang Y, Chen Z, Yang P, Zhou Y, Wang J (2014) Removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in aqueous solution by the micron-scale iron–copper (Fe/Cu) bimetallic particles. Appl Catal B-Environ 144:816–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Loveira EL, Fantoni S, Espinosa M, Babay P, Curutchet G, Candal R (2019) Increased biodegradability of the fungicide imazalil after photo-Fenton treatment in solar pilot plant. J Environ Chem Eng 7:103023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mei X, Liu J, Guo Z, Li P, Bi S, Wang Y, Yang Y, Shen W, Wang Y, Xiao Y, Yang X, Zhou B, Liu H, Wu S (2019) Simultaneous p-nitrophenol and nitrogen removal in PNP wastewater treatment: Comparison of two integrated membrane-aerated bioreactor systems. J Hazard Mater 363:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sonntag, C.v., Gunten, U.V., 2012. Chemistry of ozone in water and wastewater treatment: from basic principles to applications.Google Scholar
  12. Uman AE, Usack JG, Lozano JL, Angenent LT (2018) Controlled experiment contradicts the apparent benefits of the Fenton reaction during anaerobic digestion at a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water Sci Technol 78:1861–1870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wang H, Zhan J, Yao W, Wang B, Deng S, Huang J, Yu G, Wang Y (2018) Comparison of pharmaceutical abatement in various water matrices by conventional ozonation, peroxone (O3/H2O2), and an electro-peroxone process. Water Res 130:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wei L-l, Chen W-m, Li Q-b, Gu Z-p, Zhang A-p (2018) Treatment of dinitrodiazophenol industrial wastewater in heat-activated persulfate system. RSC Adv 8:20603–20611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wei K, Cao X, Gu W, Liang P, Huang X, Zhang X (2019) Ni-induced C-Al2O3-framework (NiCAF) Supported core-multishell catalysts for efficient catalytic ozonation: a structure-to-performance study. Environ Sci Technol 53:6917–6926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wu C, Li P, Xia S, Wang S, Wang Y, Hu J, Liu Z, Yu S (2019) The role of interface in microbubble ozonation of aromatic compounds. Chemosphere 220:1067–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Xing M, Xu W, Dong C, Bai Y, Zeng J, Zhou Y, Zhang J, Yin Y (2018) Metal sulfides as excellent co-catalysts for H2O2 decomposition in advanced oxidation processes. Chem 4:1359–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Xiong Z, Lai B, Yang P, Zhou Y, Wang J, Fang S (2015) Comparative study on the reactivity of Fe/Cu bimetallic particles and zero valent iron (ZVI) under different conditions of N2, air or without aeration. J Hazard Mater 297:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Xiong Z, Zhang H, Zhang W, Lai B, Yao G (2019) Removal of nitrophenols and their derivatives by chemical redox: a review. Chem Eng J 359:13–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Xue Y, Sui Q, Brusseau ML, Zhou W, Qiu Z, Lyu S (2019) Insight into CaO2-based Fenton and Fenton-like systems: strategy for CaO2-based oxidation of organic contaminants. Chem Eng J 361:919–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yang B, Wei T, Xiao K, Deng J, Yu G, Deng S, Li J, Zhu C, Duan H, Zhuo Q (2018) Effective mineralization of anti-epilepsy drug carbamazepine in aqueous solution by simultaneously electro-generated H2O2/O3 process. Electrochim Acta 290:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yuan Y, Lai B, Tang Y-Y (2016) Combined Fe0/air and Fenton process for the treatment of dinitrodiazophenol (DDNP) industry wastewater. Chem Eng J 283:1514–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang A, Gu Z, Chen W, Li Q (2018) Degradation of leachate from a semi-anaerobic aged refuse biofilter by the ZVI/H2O2 process coupled with microwave irradiation: optimization, organics transformation, and reaction mechanisms. Environ Sci Water Res Technol 4:1695–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhepei Gu
    • 1
  • Xuqin Pan
    • 2
  • Shengpeng Guo
    • 2
  • Aiping Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Materials ScienceSichuan Normal UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental EngineeringSouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations