Impact assessment of land use change on surface temperature and agricultural productivity in Peshawar-Pakistan

  • Imran KhanEmail author
  • Tehseen Javed
  • Ahmad Khan
  • Hongdou Lei
  • Ihsan Muhammad
  • Imad Ali
  • Xuexi HuoEmail author
Research Article


The profound appreciation of urban expansion and land use change (LUC) considerably influences the ecosystem functions, services, and biodiversity along with the local and regional climate. Land use has undergone an awful transformation due to rapid urbanization and population growth, which in turn increased land surface temperature (LST) in district Peshawar, Pakistan. The current study tends to capture the influence of land use on LST and agricultural productivity by employing multi-temporal, multispectral satellite data and agricultural production data during the selected years, i.e., 1996, 2003, and 2016. The results demonstrated that barren land considerably decreased while the urban area increased over time in all three phases. Furthermore, significant LST difference was found in different land cover units; e.g., barren land and urban area have the maximum, while water bodies followed by vegetation retain minimum LST in all three phases, i.e., 1996, 2003, and 2016. Similarly, the results from agricultural production revealed that except for wheat crops, which decreased by 7.54% during 1999–2003, the production of all major food crops increased during the selected years. However, the production of sugar cane and barley experienced considerable reduction during the selected years, except for barley, which increased by 22.86% during 2003–2016. The finding of this study provides guidance, policy recommendations, and reference for future researchers.

Graphical abstract



Land use change (LUC) Satellite images Geographic information system (GIS) Land surface temperature (LST) Agricultural productivity Change detection 



The authors extend their sincere thanks to the editorial team of this journal and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions that have significantly improved the manuscript.

Funding information

The survey was sponsored by the major project supported by the National Natural Social Science Foundation of China (No. 7153211).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Economics & ManagementNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.College of Water Resources and Architectural EngineeringNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyThe University of AgriculturePeshawarPakistan
  4. 4.Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, College of Urban and Environmental ScienceNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina

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