Evaluating renewable energy sources for implementing the hydrogen economy in Pakistan: a two-stage fuzzy MCDM approach

  • Li Xu
  • Syed Ahsan Ali ShahEmail author
  • Hashim Zameer
  • Yasir Ahmed Solangi
Research Article


Hydrogen can play a crucial role in increasing energy security and reducing greenhouse gases in Pakistan. Hydrogen can only be a clean and sustainable fuel if it is generated from renewable energy sources (RES). Thus, it is important to evaluate viability of RES for hydrogen production. This study developed a two-stage fuzzy MCDM (Multi-criteria decision-making) approach to select the most efficient RES. In the first stage, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) obtained the relative weights of four criteria for the selection of best RES. These criteria included commercial potential, environmental impacts, economic benefits, and social acceptance. In the second stage, data envelopment analysis (DEA) measured the relative efficiency of RES using weights of criteria as outputs, and the cost of RES-based electricity generation as input. The results indicated that wind and solar are the most efficient sources of hydrogen production in Pakistan. Municipal solid waste (MSW) and biomass can also be considered a feedstock for the hydrogen economy. Geothermal reported to be the less efficient source and thus is not recommended at present. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of results obtained using the developed framework.


Green hydrogen Sustainable energy Multi-criteria decision-making Efficiency analysis Pakistan 


Funding information

The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by (1) the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71873064), Research on OFDI driving low-carbon upgrading of China’s equipment manufacturing global value chain: theoretical mechanism, implementation path and performance evaluation, (2) OFDI (18YJA790085) General Projects of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education (Planning Projects) (Grant No. 18YJA790085), Performance evaluation of OFDI driving low-carbon upgrading of China’s equipment manufacturing global value chain, and (3) (2017ZDIXM084) Key Project of Philosophy and Social Science Research in Colleges and Universities in Jiangsu Province (Grant No. 2017ZDIXM084), Research on the development path and countermeasures of equipment manufacturing industry in Jiangsu Province under the “One Belt One Road” initiative.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of FinanceJiangsu Vocational Institute of CommerceNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina

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