Advertisement

Evaluating renewable energy sources for implementing the hydrogen economy in Pakistan: a two-stage fuzzy MCDM approach

  • Li Xu
  • Syed Ahsan Ali ShahEmail author
  • Hashim Zameer
  • Yasir Ahmed Solangi
Research Article
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Hydrogen can play a crucial role in increasing energy security and reducing greenhouse gases in Pakistan. Hydrogen can only be a clean and sustainable fuel if it is generated from renewable energy sources (RES). Thus, it is important to evaluate viability of RES for hydrogen production. This study developed a two-stage fuzzy MCDM (Multi-criteria decision-making) approach to select the most efficient RES. In the first stage, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) obtained the relative weights of four criteria for the selection of best RES. These criteria included commercial potential, environmental impacts, economic benefits, and social acceptance. In the second stage, data envelopment analysis (DEA) measured the relative efficiency of RES using weights of criteria as outputs, and the cost of RES-based electricity generation as input. The results indicated that wind and solar are the most efficient sources of hydrogen production in Pakistan. Municipal solid waste (MSW) and biomass can also be considered a feedstock for the hydrogen economy. Geothermal reported to be the less efficient source and thus is not recommended at present. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of results obtained using the developed framework.

Keywords

Green hydrogen Sustainable energy Multi-criteria decision-making Efficiency analysis Pakistan 

Notes

Funding information

The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by (1) the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71873064), Research on OFDI driving low-carbon upgrading of China’s equipment manufacturing global value chain: theoretical mechanism, implementation path and performance evaluation, (2) OFDI (18YJA790085) General Projects of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education (Planning Projects) (Grant No. 18YJA790085), Performance evaluation of OFDI driving low-carbon upgrading of China’s equipment manufacturing global value chain, and (3) (2017ZDIXM084) Key Project of Philosophy and Social Science Research in Colleges and Universities in Jiangsu Province (Grant No. 2017ZDIXM084), Research on the development path and countermeasures of equipment manufacturing industry in Jiangsu Province under the “One Belt One Road” initiative.

References

  1. Acar C, Beskese A, Temur GT (2018) Sustainability analysis of different hydrogen production options using hesitant fuzzy AHP. Int J Hydrog Energy 43:18059–18076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afgan NH, Veziroglu A, Carvalho MG (2007) Multi-criteria evaluation of hydrogen system options. Int J Hydrog Energy 32:3183–3193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad N, Hussain T, Awan AN, Sattar A, Arslan C, Tusief MQ, Mariam Z (2017) Efficient and eco-friendly management of biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW) using naturally aerated windrow composting technique in district Lahore Pakistan. Earth Sci Pak 1:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ball M, Weeda M (2015) The hydrogen economy–vision or reality? Int J Hydrog Energy 40:7903–7919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banaeian N, Mobli H, Fahimnia B, Nielsen IE, Omid M (2018) Green supplier selection using fuzzy group decision making methods: a case study from the agri-food industry. Comput Oper Res 89:337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baykara SZ (2018) Hydrogen: a brief overview on its sources, production and environmental impact. Int J Hydrog Energy 43:10605–10614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieber N, Ker JH, Wang X, Triantafyllidis C, van Dam KH, Koppelaar RHEM, Shah N (2018) Sustainable planning of the energy-water-food nexus using decision making tools. Energy Policy 113:584–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charnes A, Cooper WW, Rhodes E (1978) Measuring the efficiency of decision making units. Eur J Oper Res 2:429–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cook WD, Ramón N, Ruiz JL, Sirvent I, Zhu J (2019) DEA-based benchmarking for performance evaluation in pay-for-performance incentive plans. Omega 84:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duffie JA, Beckman WA, Worek WM (2013) Solar engineering of thermal processes. Wiley Online Library, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghaffar MA (1995) The energy supply situation in the rural sector of Pakistan and the potential of renewable energy technologies. Renew Energy 6:941–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gondal IA, Masood SA, Khan R (2018) Green hydrogen production potential for developing a hydrogen economy in Pakistan. Int J Hydrog Energy 43:6011–6039.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.01.113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hosseini SE, Wahid MA (2016) Hydrogen production from renewable and sustainable energy resources: promising green energy carrier for clean development. Renew Sust Energ Rev 57:850–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ivy J (2004) Summary of electrolytic hydrogen production: milestone completion report. National Renewable Energy Lab, GoldenGoogle Scholar
  15. Kamran M (2018) Current status and future success of renewable energy in Pakistan. Renew Sust Energ Rev 82:609–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krmac E, Djordjević B (2019) A new DEA model for evaluation of supply chains: a case of selection and evaluation of environmental efficiency of suppliers. Symmetry (Basel) 11:565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. LaPlante AE, Paradi JC (2015) Evaluation of bank branch growth potential using data envelopment analysis. Omega 52:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Melaina M, Penev M, Heimiller D (2013) Resource assessment for hydrogen production: hydrogen production potential from fossil and renewable energy resources. National Renewable Energy Lab.(NREL), GoldenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mohsin M, Zhou P, Iqbal N, Shah SAA (2018) Assessing oil supply security of South Asia. Energy 155:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nikolaidis P, Poullikkas A (2017) A comparative overview of hydrogen production processes. Renew Sust Energ Rev 67:597–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2016) Pakistan livestock census 2006. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  22. Pilavachi PA, Chatzipanagi AI, Spyropoulou AI (2009) Evaluation of hydrogen production methods using the analytic hierarchy process. Int J Hydrog Energy 34:5294–5303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pode R (2010) Addressing India’s energy security and options for decreasing energy dependency. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14:3014–3022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ren J, Fedele A, Mason M, Manzardo A, Scipioni A (2013) Fuzzy multi-actor multi-criteria decision making for sustainability assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:9111–9120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rufuss DDW, Kumar VR, Suganthi L et al (2018) Techno-economic analysis of solar stills using integrated fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and data envelopment analysis. Sol Energy 159:820–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saaty TL (2014) Analytic heirarchy process. Wiley StatsRef Stat Ref onlineGoogle Scholar
  27. Shah SAA, Valasai GD, Memon AA et al (2018) Techno-economic analysis of solar PV electricity supply to rural areas of Balochistan, Pakistan. Energies 11.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071777
  28. Shah SAA, Solangi YA, Ikram M (2019a) Analysis of barriers to the adoption of cleaner energy technologies in Pakistan using modified Delphi and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. J Clean Prod 235:1037–1050.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.07.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shah SAA, Zhou P, Walasai GD, Mohsin M (2019b) Energy security and environmental sustainability index of South Asian countries: a composite index approach. Ecol Indic 106:105507.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Solangi YA, Tan Q, Mirjat NH, Valasai GD, Khan MWA, Ikram M (2019) An integrated Delphi-AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS approach toward ranking and selection of renewable energy resources in Pakistan. Processes 7:118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stökler S, Schillings C, Kraas B (2016) Solar resource assessment study for Pakistan. Renew Sust Energ Rev 58:1184–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tahir ZR, Asim M (2018) Surface measured solar radiation data and solar energy resource assessment of Pakistan: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 81:2839–2861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tajbakhsh A, Hassini E (2015) A data envelopment analysis approach to evaluate sustainability in supply chain networks. J Clean Prod 105:74–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang Y, Shah SAA, Zhou P (2018) City-level environmental performance in China. Energy Ecol Environ 3:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang L-W, Le K-D, Nguyen T-D (2019) Assessment of the energy efficiency improvement of twenty-five countries: a DEA approach. Energies 12:1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu L, Wang Y, Shah SAA et al (2019a) Economic viability and environmental efficiency analysis of hydrogen production processes for the decarbonization of energy systems. Processes 7:494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xu L, Wang Y, Solangi YA, Zameer H, Shah S (2019b) Off-grid solar PV power generation system in Sindh, Pakistan: a techno-economic feasibility analysis. Processes 7:308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yoshida T, Kojima K (2015) Toyota MIRAI fuel cell vehicle and progress toward a future hydrogen society. Electrochem Soc Interface 24:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yu D (2014) Hydrogen production technologies evaluation based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy multiattribute decision making method. J Appl Math 2014:1–10Google Scholar
  40. Zadeh LA (1978) Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility. Fuzzy Sets Syst 1:3–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zaigham NA, Nayyar ZA (2010) Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14:1124–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhou P, Ang BW, Poh K-L (2008a) A survey of data envelopment analysis in energy and environmental studies. Eur J Oper Res 189:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhou P, Ang BW, Poh KL (2008b) Measuring environmental performance under different environmental DEA technologies. Energy Econ 30:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zuberi MJS, Ali SF (2015) Greenhouse effect reduction by recovering energy from waste landfills in Pakistan. Renew Sust Energ Rev 44:117–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of FinanceJiangsu Vocational Institute of CommerceNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations