Influence of CaO-activated silicon-based slag amendment on the growth and heavy metal uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown in multi-metal-contaminated soils

  • Jing Mu
  • Zhengyi HuEmail author
  • Zijian Xie
  • Lijuan Huang
  • Peter E. HolmEmail author
Research Article


Few plant species used for revegetation grow well in multi-metal-contaminated soils. Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is known to be tolerant of heavy metals. Vetiver has been reported to be effective for revegetation and heavy metal phytoextraction by applying targeted amendments due to its large biomass. In this study, a greenhouse vetiver pot experiment and soil incubation were performed to investigate the growth and Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn uptake of vetiver grown in multi-metal-contaminated soils treated with a CaO-activated Si-based slag amendment (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/w). The results showed that the effects of slag amendment on plant growth and heavy metal uptake and distribution were dependent on the amendment dosages and metal species. Although vetiver could grow in contaminated soils, its growth was obviously inhibited. The slag amendment enhanced the vetiver growth and the highest biomass (2.62-fold over the control) was determined at a 1.0% amendment rate. The slag amendment improved plant growth by alleviating the toxicity of heavy metals in plants. This result was mainly attributed to the increases in soil pH and citric acid-extractable Si caused by alkaline amendment. The results suggest that vetiver can be applied to remediate multi-metal-contaminated soils in conjunction with the application of CaO-activated Si-based slag amendment.


Vetiver grass Si-based slag amendment Multi-metal-contaminated soils Revegetation Phytoextraction Phytostabilization 


Funding information

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Fund Projects of China (41571318).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6429_MOESM1_ESM.docx (73 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 73 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Resources and EnvironmentUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksbergDenmark
  3. 3.Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (SDC)BeijingChina
  4. 4.Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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