Advertisement

Utilization of Ficus carica leaves as a heterogeneous catalyst for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

  • Dena A. Kamel
  • Hassan A. Farag
  • Nevin K. Amin
  • Ahmed A. Zatout
  • Yasmine O. FouadEmail author
Research Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

Biodiesel appears to be a possible substitute for non-renewable fossil fuels; however, its production requires the presence of a catalyst to accelerate the reaction. Serving the purpose of finding effective, cheap and environmentally safe, heterogeneous catalysts, this research used the fig leaves in three different forms, calcined, activated by KOH, and activated by both K2CO3 and CaCO3. Their efficiency in biodiesel synthesis, from spent cooking oil, was examined and compared with that of activated carbon which has been previously investigated. The properties of different catalyst forms were specified using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Operating parameters studied for the three catalysts were reaction time (from 30 to 180 min), alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (from 4:1 to 10:1), catalyst loading (from 0.5 to 5% by wt.), and stirring speed (from 100 to 400 rpm). The increase in reaction time, molar ratio, and catalyst loading proved to have a favorable effect on % conversion to biodiesel but to a certain degree; increasing the stirring speed augmented the conversion. At optimum conditions (2 h of heating, 6:1 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, 1% by wt. catalyst loading, and 400 rpm stirring), fig leaves activated by KOH provided the highest conversion to biodiesel (92.73%). The measured properties of the produced biodiesel (density, viscosity, flash point, cloud point, and pour point) yielded encouraging results.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Renewable energy sources Solid catalysts Agricultural wastes Non-edible oils Alkali activation 

Abbreviations

FFA

Free fatty acids

CFL

Calcined fig leaves

FAME

Fatty acid methyl esters

KFL

Fig leaves activated by KOH

MFL

Fig leaves activated by a mixture of K2CO3 and CaCO3

RFL

Raw fig leaves

WCO

Waste cooking oil

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abdul Khalil HPS, Jawaid M, Firoozian P, Rashid U, Islam A, Akil HM (2013) Activated carbon from various agricultural wastes by chemical activation with KOH: preparation and characterization. J Biochem Mol Biol 7:1–7Google Scholar
  2. Al-Saadi AA, Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2013) Spectroscopic and computational evaluation of cadmium adsorption using activated carbon produced from rubber tires. J Mol Liq 188:136–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohlouli A, Mahdavian L (2019) Catalysts used in biodiesel production: a review. Biofuels.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2018.1558836
  4. Cai ZZ, Wang Y, Teng YL, Chong KM, Wang JW, Zhang JW, Yang DP (2015) A two-step biodiesel production process from waste cooking oil via recycling crude glycerol esterification catalyzed by alkali catalyst. Fuel Process Technol 137:186–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chongkhong S, Tongurai C, Chetpattananondh P, Bunyakan C (2007) Biodiesel production by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate. Biomass Bioenergy 31:563–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chouhan APS, Sarma AK (2011) Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production: a comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:4378–4399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Araújo CDM, De Andrade CC, Ese S, Dupas FA (2013) Biodiesel production from used cooking oil: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 27:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Devarajan Y, Mahalingam A, Munuswamy DB, Nagappan B (2018) Emission and combustion profile study of unmodified research engine propelled with neat biofuels. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25(20):19643–19656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dos Santos LK, Hatanaka RR, De Oliveira JE, Flumignan DL (2017) Experimental factorial design on hydroesterification of waste cooking oil by subcritical conditions for biodiesel production. Renew Energy 114:574–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Draphco CM, Nhuan NP, Walker TH (2008) Biofuels engineering process technology. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Fogler HS (2010) Essentials of chemical reaction engineering. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  12. Gupta AR, Rathod VK (2018) Calcium diglyceroxide catalyzed biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in the presence of microwave: Optimization and kinetic studies. Renew Energy 121:757–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gupta VK, Jain R, Mittal A, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agarwal S, Sikarwar S (2012) Photo-catalytic degradation of toxic dye amaranth on TiO2/ UV in aqueous suspensions. Mater Sci Eng C 32:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ishak S, Kamari A (2019) A review of optimum conditions of transesterification process for biodiesel production from various feedstocks. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:2481–2502Google Scholar
  15. Jacobson K, Gopinath R, Meher LC, Dalai AK (2008) Solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Appl Catal B Environ 85:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Joshi S, Gogate PR, Moreira PF Jr, Giudici R (2017) Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer. Ultrason Sonochem 39:645–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kamel DA, Farag HA, Amin NK, Fouad YO (2017) Biodiesel synthesis from non-edible oils by transesterification using the activated carbon as heterogeneous catalyst. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:785–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kansedo J, Lee KT, Bhatia S (2009) Cerbera-odollam (sea mango) oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel 88:1148–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kataria J, Mohapatra SK, Kundu K (2019) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using heterogeneous catalysts and its operational characteristics on variable compression ratio CI engine. J Energy Inst 92(2):275–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kavitha KR, Beemkumar N, Rajasekar R (2019) Experimental investigation of diesel engine performance fueled with the blends of Jatropha curcas, ethanol, and diesel. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 26(9):8633–8639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Talebian-Kiakalaieh A, Amin NAS, Zarei A, Jaliliannosrati H (2013) Biodiesel production from high free fatty acid waste cooking oil by solid acid catalyst, 6th international conference on process systems engineering (PSE ASIA), Kuala Lumpur, 25-27 June.Google Scholar
  22. Knothe G, Sharp CA, Ryan TW (2006) Exhaust emissions of biodiesel, petro diesel, neat methyl esters, and alkanes in a new technology engine. Energy Fuel 20:403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koh MY, Ghazi TIM (2011) A review of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:2240–2251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee AF, Bennett JA, Manayil JC, Wilson K (2014) Heterogeneous catalysis for sustainable biodiesel production via esterification and transesterification. Chem Soc Rev 43(22):7887–7916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Leung D, Guo Y (2006) Transesterification of neat and used frying oil: optimization for biodiesel production. Fuel Process Technol 87(10):883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leung DYC, Wu X, Leung MKH (2010) A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Appl Energy 87:1083–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lou WY, Zong MH, Duan ZQ (2008) Efficient production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing waste oils using various carbohydrate-derived solid acid catalysts. Bioresour Technol 99:8752–8758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ma F, Hanna MA (1999) Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresour Technol 70(1):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maeda H, Hagiwara S, Nabetani H, Sagara Y, Soerawidjaya TH, Tambunan AH (2008) Biodiesel fuels from palm oil via the non-catalytic transesterification in a bubble column reactor at atmospheric pressure: a kinetic study. Renew Energy 33:1629–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahlia TMI, Ismail N, Hossain N, Silitonga AS, Shamsuddin AH (2019) Palm oil and its wastes as bioenergy sources: a comprehensive review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:14849–14866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mahmudul HM, Mamat FY, Adam AA, Ishak WFW, Alenezi R (2017) Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 72:497–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mansir N, Teo SH, Rashid U, Saiman MI, Tan YP, Alsultan GA, Taufiq-Yap YH (2018) Modified waste egg shell derived bifunctional catalyst for biodiesel production from high FFA waste cooking oil: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 82(3):3645–3655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marchetti JM, Errazu AF (2008) Esterification of free fatty acids using sulfuric acid as catalyst in the presence of triglycerides. Biomass Bioenergy 32:892–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mofijur M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Atabani AE, Shahabuddin M, Palash SM, Hazrat MA (2013) Effect of biodiesel from various feedstocks on combustion characteristics, engine durability and materials compatibility: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 28:441–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Muhammad Y, Mohd W, Wan A, Aziz ARA (2014) Activity of solid acid catalysts for biodiesel production: a critical review. Appl Catal A Gen 470:140–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murugesan AA (2018) Prediction capabilities of mathematical models in producing a renewable fuel from waste cooking oil for sustainable energy and clean environment. Fuel 216:322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nata IF, Putra MD, Irawan C, Lee CK (2017) Catalytic performance of sulfonated carbon-based solid acid catalyst on esterification of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. J Environ Chem Eng 5:2171–2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Payawan LM Jr, Damasco JA, Sy Piecco KWE (2010) Transesterification of oil extract from locally cultivated Jatropha curcas using a heterogeneous base catalyst and determination of its properties as a viable biodiesel. Philipp J Sci 139:105–116Google Scholar
  39. Pirouzmand M, Anakhatoon MM, Ghasemi Z (2018) One-step biodiesel production from waste cooking oils over metal incorporated MCM-41; positive effect of template. Fuel 216:296–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Qian J, Shi H, Yun Z (2010) Preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction. Bioresour Technol 101:7025–7031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ramachandran K, Sivakumar P, Suganya T, Renganathan S (2011) Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst. Bioresour Technol 102:7289–7293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rattanaphra D, Harvey A (2010) Simultaneous conversion of triglyceride/free fatty acid mixtures into biodiesel using sulfated zirconia. Top Catal 53:773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reddy HK, Muppaneni T, Patil PD, Ponnusamy S, Cooke P, Schaub T (2014) Direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions. Fuel 115:720–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sani MY, Alaba PA, Raji-yahya AO, Aziz ARA, Daud WMAW (2015) Acidity and catalytic performance of Yb-doped SO2 for biodiesel production. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 59:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sharma V, Duraisamy G (2019) Production and characterization of bio-mix fuel produced from the mixture of raw oil feedstock, and its effects on performance and emission analysis in DICI diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:16742–16761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sharma YC, Singh B, Upadhyay SN (2008) Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review. Fuel 87(12):2355–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sharma M, Khan AA, Puri SK, Tuli DK (2012) Wood ash as a potential heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. Biomass Bioenergy 41:94–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shu Q, Gao J, Nawaz Z, Liao Y, Wang D, Wang J (2010) Synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil with large amounts of free fatty acids using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst. Appl Energy 87:2589–2596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh SP, Singh DD (2010) Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14:200–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ueki Y, Saiki S, Hoshina H, Seko N (2018) Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil using radiation-grafted fibrous catalysts. Radiat Phys Chem 143:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ullah Z, Bustam MA, Man Z, Khan AS, Muhammad N, Sarwono A (2017) Preparation and kinetics study of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using new functionalized ionic liquids as catalysts. Renew Energy 114:755–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vi Tran TT, Kaiprommarat S, Kongparakul S, Reubroycharoen P, Guan G, Nguyen MH, Samart C (2016) Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst. Waste Manag 52:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Viriya-empikul N, Krasae P, Nualpaeng W, Yoosuk B, Faungnawakij K (2012) Biodiesel production over Ca-based solid catalysts derived from industrial wastes. Fuel 92:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zabeti M, Daud WMAW, Aroua MK (2009) Activity of solid catalysts for biodiesel production: A review. Fuel Process Technol 90:770–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zareh P, Zare AA, Ghobadian B (2017) Comparative assessment of performance and emission characteristics of castor, coconut and waste cooking based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine. Energy 139:883–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang J, Chen S, Yang R, Yan Y (2010) Biodiesel production from vegetable oil using heterogeneous acid and alkali catalyst. Fuel 89:2939–2944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Živković S, Veljković M (2018) Environmental impacts of production and use of biodiesel. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(1):191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations