Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 32, pp 33373–33386 | Cite as

Biomonitorization of metal ions in the serum of Iranian patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances in comparison with controls in eastern Iran

  • Mahdjoube Goldani Moghadam
  • Reyhane Hoshyar
  • Marcin Mikulewicz
  • Katarzyna Chojnacka
  • Geir Bjørklund
  • Joeri J. Pen
  • Nammam Ali Azadi
  • Maghdad Pirsaheb
  • Meysam Dashtaki
  • Borhan MansouriEmail author
Research Article


The present study aimed to assess the level of metal ions [chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)] in the serum of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. One hundred samples (32 males, 68 females) were collected from patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for different periods. A reference (control) group (24 males, 16 females) who had no appliances was used to properly evaluate the changes in the level of these elements in orthodontic appliance users. The element concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Higher concentrations of metal ions (except for Cr) were found in the serum of the orthodontic group. Bivariate scatter plot showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) correlation between Ni and other elements. The duration of orthodontic treatment increased significantly the Ni levels whereas the bracket type was found to have no significant impact on altering the concentration level of metal ions. The results of the SEM-EDS showed a high variation in the level of metal ions in the brackets and wires. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances increased serum levels of Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu but did not change Cr levels.


Orthodontic appliances Metal ions Nickel Chromium 



The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge all of our colleagues at the Density Research Center (DRC) of Birjand University of Medical Sciences who contributed greatly to this study. Moreover, the authors thank Mr. Alireza Amirabadi and Mr. Ali Farahi for their technical assistance.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding information

This study was supported by the Birjand University of Medical Sciences (Grant number BUMS.1398.109).

Compliance with ethical standards

The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Birjand University of Medical Sciences (IR.BUMS.REC.1398.109).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6414_MOESM1_ESM.doc (98 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 98 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahdjoube Goldani Moghadam
    • 1
  • Reyhane Hoshyar
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marcin Mikulewicz
    • 4
  • Katarzyna Chojnacka
    • 5
  • Geir Bjørklund
    • 6
  • Joeri J. Pen
    • 7
    • 8
  • Nammam Ali Azadi
    • 9
  • Maghdad Pirsaheb
    • 10
  • Meysam Dashtaki
    • 11
  • Borhan Mansouri
    • 12
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthodontics, School of DentistryBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  2. 2.Cellular and Molecular Research CenterBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  4. 4.Department of Dentofacial Orthopaedics and Orthodontics, Division of Facial AbnormalitiesMedical University of WrocławWroclawPoland
  5. 5.Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of ChemistryWroclaw University of Science and TechnologyWroclawPoland
  6. 6.Council for Nutritional and Environmental MedicineMo i RanaNorway
  7. 7.Diabetes Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, UZ BrusselVrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)BrusselsBelgium
  8. 8.Department of Nutrition, UZ BrusselVrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)BrusselsBelgium
  9. 9.Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Public HealthIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  10. 10.Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH)Kermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  11. 11.Student Research CommitteeBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  12. 12.Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Health InstituteKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran

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