Biomonitorization of metal ions in the serum of Iranian patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances in comparison with controls in eastern Iran
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The present study aimed to assess the level of metal ions [chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)] in the serum of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. One hundred samples (32 males, 68 females) were collected from patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for different periods. A reference (control) group (24 males, 16 females) who had no appliances was used to properly evaluate the changes in the level of these elements in orthodontic appliance users. The element concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Higher concentrations of metal ions (except for Cr) were found in the serum of the orthodontic group. Bivariate scatter plot showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) correlation between Ni and other elements. The duration of orthodontic treatment increased significantly the Ni levels whereas the bracket type was found to have no significant impact on altering the concentration level of metal ions. The results of the SEM-EDS showed a high variation in the level of metal ions in the brackets and wires. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances increased serum levels of Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu but did not change Cr levels.
KeywordsOrthodontic appliances Metal ions Nickel Chromium
The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge all of our colleagues at the Density Research Center (DRC) of Birjand University of Medical Sciences who contributed greatly to this study. Moreover, the authors thank Mr. Alireza Amirabadi and Mr. Ali Farahi for their technical assistance.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This study was supported by the Birjand University of Medical Sciences (Grant number BUMS.1398.109).
Compliance with ethical standards
The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Birjand University of Medical Sciences (IR.BUMS.REC.1398.109).
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