Phytoextraction of iron from contaminated soils by inoculation of iron-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria in Brassica juncea L. Czern

  • Hardik Naik Jinal
  • Kachhadiya Gopi
  • Patel Prittesh
  • Vinodbhai Patel Kartik
  • Natarajan AmaresanEmail author
Research Article


Iron (Fe) is one of the essential micronutrients for all living organisms. Despite its abundance in most of the contaminated soil, it is usually in unavailable forms. The unavailable form of Fe could be mobilized to plants by the use of microorganisms. This study was carried out to show that the Fe-contaminated field soils could be used to accumulate Fe in the plant parts using bacterial inoculation. For this, from a set of bacterial isolates, four Fe-tolerant bacteria were selected and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The Fe-tolerant bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus toyonensis (MG430287), Rhodococcus hoagii (MG432495), Lysinibacillus mangiferihumi (MG432492), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (MG430290). Screening of plant growth-promoting properties of these isolates revealed that all isolates were able to produce indole acetic acid (50.0–84.0 μg/ml), siderophore, and potassium solubilization (except R. hoagii). Pot assay using Fe-contaminated ((8.07–8.35 g kg−1) soils River Directorate of India) revealed that Fe-tolerant bacteria enhanced the growth of Brassica juncea and its biomass. Besides the improved plant growth, the inoculated plants also showed an overall percentage increase in the uptake of iron in root, stem, and leaf (57.91–128.31%) compared with uninoculated plants. In addition to enhanced plant growth attributes, the isolates also improved the total chlorophyll content and antioxidant properties such as total phenol, proline, and ascorbic acid oxidase. Thus, the results clearly indicated that these isolates could be used as a bioinoculant to improve the sequestration of Fe from the contaminated soils and alleviation of Fe stress in plants.


Iron Brassica juncea Plant growth promotion Siderophore Antioxidants Biofortification 



The authors thank the management of Uka Tarsadia University and Director of C.G. Bhakta Institute of Biotechnology for their constant support and providing necessary facilities to carry out the work. The authors also thank GSBTM for 16S rRNA gene sequencing facility and Dr. N. B. Patel, Head, Sophisticated Scientific Instrumentation Center, VNSGU, Surat, for providing AAS facilities. This work was supported by the Gujarat Environmental Management Institute (GEMI) under Research and Development proposals for researchers.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hardik Naik Jinal
    • 1
  • Kachhadiya Gopi
    • 1
  • Patel Prittesh
    • 1
  • Vinodbhai Patel Kartik
    • 2
  • Natarajan Amaresan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.C. G. Bhakta Institute of BiotechnologyUka Tarsadia UniversitySuratIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiosciencesVeer Narmad South Gujarat UniversitySuratIndia

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