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Characteristics of cohort studies of long-term exposure to PM2.5: a systematic review

  • Ramin Nabizadeh
  • Fatemeh Yousefian
  • Vahid Kazemi Moghadam
  • Mostafa HadeiEmail author
Review Article
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

This study systematically reviewed all the cohort studies investigating the relationship between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and any health outcome until February 2018. We searched ISI Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and Scopus databases for peer-reviewed journal research articles published in English. We only extracted the results of the single-pollutant main analysis of each study, excluding the effect modifications and sensitivity analyses. Out of the initial 9523 articles, 203 articles were ultimately included for analysis. Based on the different characteristics of studies such as study design, outcome, exposure assessment method, and statistical model, we calculated the number and relative frequency of analyses with statistically significant and insignificant results. Most of the studies were prospective (84.8%), assessed both genders (66.5%), and focused on a specific age range (86.8%). Most of the articles (78.1%) had used modeling techniques for exposure assessment of cohorts’ participants. Among the total of 317 health outcomes, the most investigated outcomes include mortality due to cardiovascular disease (6.19%), all causes (5.48%), lung cancer (4.00%), ischemic heart disease (3.50%), and non-accidental causes (3.50%). The percentage of analyses with statistically significant results were higher among studies that used prospective design, mortality as the outcome, fixed stations as exposure assessment method, hazard ratio as risk measure, and no covariate adjustment. We can somehow conclude that the choice of right characteristics for cohort studies can make a difference in their results.

Keywords

Fine particle Particulate matter Chronic exposure Ambient air pollution Public health Epidemiology Association Relationship 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the Environmental Health Engineering Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Funding information

This study was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6382_MOESM1_ESM.docx (54 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 53 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramin Nabizadeh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fatemeh Yousefian
    • 1
  • Vahid Kazemi Moghadam
    • 3
  • Mostafa Hadei
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Neyshabur University of Medical SciencesNeyshaburIran
  4. 4.Students’ Scientific Research Center (SSRC)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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