Integrated effect of energy consumption, economic development, and population growth on CO2 based environmental degradation: a case of transport sector

  • Muhammad MohsinEmail author
  • Qaiser Abbas
  • Jijian Zhang
  • Muhammad IkramEmail author
  • Nadeem Iqbal
Research Article


The transportation sector consumes 25% of world energy with 23% of the world’s total carbon emission. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the integrated effect of fossil fuel source of energy consumption, economic development, and total population on CO2 emission based on environmental degradation transportation sector. We employed the econometric methodologies such as a hybrid error correction model, regression coefficients, platykurtic distribution, Dickey-Fuller test, and co-integration test in order to justify empirical analysis for Pakistan transport sector. Results reveal that an increase in economic growth, urbanization, and energy consumption increased transport-based environmental degradation urbanization. Moreover, very interestingly, during this period, energy consumption has increased by 13.5%, and it shows a high dependence of economic growth on energy consumption. Further, the CO2 emission and energy consumption per capita has a positive relationship. Finally, this study has proposed some suggestion for policy and decision-makers to mitigate environmental degradation as well as make transport sector environmentally sustainable.


Energy consumption Economic development Transport-based CO2 Environmental degradation Population growth 



British thermal units


carbon dioxide


nitrogen oxide


sulfur dioxide


United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change


GDP per capita


population density


population in urban agglomerations


Federal Bureau of Statistics


World Bank


International Monetary Fund


error correction model


auto regressive distributive lag model


carbon dioxide from transport sector


energy consumption per capita


population growth rate


gross domestic product


Funding information

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71673117), and the Young Academic Leader Project of Jiangsu University (5521380003).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Finance and EconomicsJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationShaheed Benazir Bhutto UniversityShaheed BenazirabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsGhazi universityDera Ghazi KhanPakistan
  4. 4.College of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina
  5. 5.Department of Business AdministrationGhazi universityDera Ghazi KhanPakistan

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