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Integrated effect of energy consumption, economic development, and population growth on CO2 based environmental degradation: a case of transport sector

  • Muhammad MohsinEmail author
  • Qaiser Abbas
  • Jijian Zhang
  • Muhammad IkramEmail author
  • Nadeem Iqbal
Research Article

Abstract

The transportation sector consumes 25% of world energy with 23% of the world’s total carbon emission. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the integrated effect of fossil fuel source of energy consumption, economic development, and total population on CO2 emission based on environmental degradation transportation sector. We employed the econometric methodologies such as a hybrid error correction model, regression coefficients, platykurtic distribution, Dickey-Fuller test, and co-integration test in order to justify empirical analysis for Pakistan transport sector. Results reveal that an increase in economic growth, urbanization, and energy consumption increased transport-based environmental degradation urbanization. Moreover, very interestingly, during this period, energy consumption has increased by 13.5%, and it shows a high dependence of economic growth on energy consumption. Further, the CO2 emission and energy consumption per capita has a positive relationship. Finally, this study has proposed some suggestion for policy and decision-makers to mitigate environmental degradation as well as make transport sector environmentally sustainable.

Keywords

Energy consumption Economic development Transport-based CO2 Environmental degradation Population growth 

Abbreviations

BTU

British thermal units

CO2

carbon dioxide

NO2

nitrogen oxide

SO2

sulfur dioxide

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change

DEV 

GDP per capita

URBd

population density

URB

population in urban agglomerations

FBS

Federal Bureau of Statistics

WB

World Bank

IMF

International Monetary Fund

ECM

error correction model

ARDL

auto regressive distributive lag model

ENDi

carbon dioxide from transport sector

DEVe

energy consumption per capita

POP

population growth rate

GDP

gross domestic product

Notes

Funding information

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71673117), and the Young Academic Leader Project of Jiangsu University (5521380003).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Finance and EconomicsJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationShaheed Benazir Bhutto UniversityShaheed BenazirabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsGhazi universityDera Ghazi KhanPakistan
  4. 4.College of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina
  5. 5.Department of Business AdministrationGhazi universityDera Ghazi KhanPakistan

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