Assessment of source and health risk of metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor dust of university dormitory in Lanzhou City, China
- 130 Downloads
The pollution of metal(loid)s from indoor and outdoor dust is of great concern because of its impact on human health. The concentrations of nine metal(loid)s (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Hg, and As) were investigated in indoor and outdoor dust samples of university dormitories in winter and summer seasons in Lanzhou City, China. This study revealed the variations of metal(loid) concentrations in dust samples with the seasonal scale and floor heights. The results showed that the concentrations of some metal(loid)s (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and As) in dust samples collected in winter were higher than those of the dust samples collected in summer. The Hg in indoor dust was mainly derived from building materials and indoor human activities. Additionally, the concentrations of some metal(loid)s (Hg, Mn, As, Cu, Cd) in dust samples varied with the height of the floors from ground level. The concentrations of Hg in dust samples collected on upper floors (9–16th floors) were higher than those collected on down floors (1–8th floors), while Mn and As were the opposite of that. Cu and Cd concentrations increased as the floor height increased. Our results demonstrated that the adults and the children (particularly the children) endured potential health risks due to exposure to metal(loid)s from both indoor and outdoor dust in the studied area.
KeywordsAtmospheric deposition Dust Metal(loid)s Pollution characteristics Source identification Health risk
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1802905).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Ali MU, Liu GJ, Yousaf B, Ullah H, Irshad S, Ahmed R, Hussain H, Rashid A (2019) Evaluation of floor-wise pollution status and deposition behavior of potentially toxic elements and nanoparticles in air conditioner dust during urbanistic development. J Hazard Mater 365:186–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Butte W, Heinzow B (2002) Pollutants in house dust as indicators of indoor contamination. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 175:1–46Google Scholar
- Cheng Z, Chen LJ, Li HH, Lin JQ, Yang ZB, Yang YX, Xu XX, Xian JR, Shao JR, Zhu XM (2018) Characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals exposure via household dust from urban area in Chengdu, China. Sci Total Environ 619-620:621–629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- China National Environmental Monitoring Center (1990) The soil background values of China. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, pp 334–379 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Gansu Provincial Meteorological Bureau (2016) Gansu Weather Online. http://www.gsma.gov.cn/
- JECFA (1993) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: 41st report of the Joint FA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Technical reports series, no.837. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Yin LH, Cao J, Zhu L, Zhang XB, Sun XC, Zhu J, Wang H (2013) Detection of heavy metal in cosmetics. Chin J Pharm Anal 33(10):1816–1821 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Moreno T, Karanasiou A, Amato F, Lucarelli F, Nava S, Calzolai G, Chiari M, Coz E, Artinano B, Lumbreras J, Borge R, Boldo E, Linares C, Alastuey A, Querol X, Gibbons W (2013) Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions. Atmos Environ 68(1):33–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- US EPA (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Vol, I: human health evaluation manual. EPA/540/1-89/002. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency ResponseGoogle Scholar
- US EPA (1997) Exposure factors handbook. EPA/600/P-95/002Fa-c. U.S. EPA. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- US EPA (2001) Risk assessment guidance for superfund: volume III - part A, process for conducting probabilistic risk assessment. EPA 540-R-02-002. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- US EPA (2007) Estimation of relative bioavailablity of lead in soil and soil-like materials using in vivo and in vitro methods. OSWER 9285.7-77. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- US EPA (2010) Region 9, Regional screening levels tables. http://www.epa.gov/region9/superfund/prg/index.html. Accessed July 2012
- Yadav IS, Devi NL, Singh VK, Li J, Zhang G (2019) Spatial distribution, source analysis, and health risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in house dust and surface soil from four major cities of Nepal. Chemosphere 218:1100–1113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang XH, Lei CF, Li HF (2013) Study on natural disaster prevention countermeasures for western valley city from the perspective of city planning: a case of Lanzhou city. Appl Mech Mater 409-410:827–832. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.409-410.827 CrossRefGoogle Scholar