Solvent stir bar microextraction technique with three-hollow fiber configuration for trace determination of nitrite in river water samples

  • Hamid Badiee
  • Mohammad Ali Zanjanchi
  • Abbasali ZamaniEmail author
  • Armin Fashi
Research Article


In this work, trace determination of nitrite in river water samples was studied using solvent stir bar microextraction system with three-hollow fiber configuration (3HF-SSBME) as a preconcentration step prior to UV–Vis spectrophotometry. The obtained results showed that the increase in the number of solvent bars can improve the extraction performance by increasing the contact area between acceptor and sample solutions. The extraction process relies on the well-known oxidation–reduction reaction of nitrite with iodide excess in acidic donor phase to form triiodide, and then its extraction into organic acceptor phase using a cationic surfactant. Various extraction parameters affecting the method were optimized and examined in detail. Detection limit of 1.6 μg L−1 and preconcentration factor of 282 can be attained after an extraction time of 8 min under the optimum conditions of this technique. The proposed method showed a linear response up to 1000 μg L−1 (r2 = 0.996) with relative standard deviation values less than 4.0%. The accuracy of the developed method was assessed using the Griess technique. Finally, the proposed method was successfully employed for quantification of nitrite in river water samples (Ghezelozan, Zanjan, Iran).


Pollution Preconcentration Spectrophotometric determination Water samples Cationic surfactant 


Funding information

This research was financially supported by University of Zanjan Research Council, University of Guilan, and University of Guilan, University Campus 2, Rasht, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6336_MOESM1_ESM.docx (235 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 235 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of GuilanRashtIran
  2. 2.Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of GuilanRashtIran

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