Hexavalent chromium adsorption on virgin, biochar, and chemically modified carbons prepared from Phanera vahlii fruit biomass : equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics approach Research Article First Online: 07 September 2019 Abstract
A novel biosorbent
Phanera vahlii fruit biomass (PVF) and its biochar and chemically modified forms were studied for the elimination of Cr(VI) from synthetic solutions. Biosorbents were characterized through BET, FTIR, FESEM, EDX, and TGA technique. The parameters influencing biosorption were optimized and found as pH 2.0, temperature 303 K, initial metal concentration 500 mg/L, and biosorbent dosage 0.5 g/L. The ideal contact time was 180 min for all biosorbents. Freundlich isotherm was found to have good correlation with investigational data, which indicated that biosorption takes place in multiple layer style. Langmuir adsorption isotherm yielded the highest biosorption capacity ( Q o) to be 159.1, 225.1, 244.1, and 278.5 mg/g for Phanera vahlii fruit biomass, Phanera vahlii biochar, Phanera vahlii phosphoric acid activated carbon, and Phanera vahlii zinc chloride activated carbon, respectively. Experimental data had good correlation with pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted. Thermodynamic studies indicated the biosorption process to be spontaneous, stable, and endothermic. Thus, it was concluded that Phanera vahlii fruit biomass and the derived activated carbons are promising biosorbents for adsorption of chromium from aqueous solutions. Keywords Phanera vahlii fruit biomass Activated carbon Chromium Isotherm Kinetics Zinc chloride Nomenclature q t
Biosorption capacity (mg/g)
Biosorption capacity at equilibrium (mg/g)
Initial metal concentration (mg/L)
Metal concentration at equilibrium (mg/L)
Metal concentration at
t time (mg/L) V
Volume of the metal solution (L)
Weight of the biosorbent (g)
Biosorption capacity from Langmuir model (mg/g)
Langmuir isotherm constant (L/mg)
Separation factor (dimensionless)
Freundlich isotherm constant (mg/g) (L/mg)
1/n n F
Freundlich exponent (dimensionless)
Maximum biosorption capacity from Dubinin–Radushkevich model (mg/g)
Constant related to the mean free energy of biosorption (mol
2/kJ 2) ɛ
Polanyi potential of Dubinin–Radushkevich model (kJ/mol)
Universal gas constant (8.314 J/mol/K)
Apparent adsorption energy (kJ/mol)
Pseudo-first-order constant (min
−1) k 2
Pseudo-second-order constant (g/mg/min)
Intraparticle diffusion rate constant (mg/g/min
Intercept of intraparticle diffusion model
Free energy change (kJ/mol)
Enthalpy change (kJ/mol)
Entropy change (kJ/mol/K)
• Novel biosorbent
Phanera vahlii fruit biomass and derived activated carbons were utilized for Cr(VI) removal.
• Characterization was done using FTIR, FESEM, and EDX.
• BET studies revealed large surface area for activated carbons.
Phanera vahlii Zinc chloride activated carbon was found to have high adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) of 297.61 mg/g.
Responsible editor: Tito Roberto Cadaval Jr
The Central Instrumentation Facility, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati is highly appreciated for the technical assistance.
This study received monetary assistance from the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India (Grant No. BSBESUGIITG01213xSEN001).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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