Atmospheric deposition and air–soil exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a background site in Central China
- 26 Downloads
Jinsha (JSH) is one of the regional background sites in Central China. In this study, eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmospheric deposition samples (dry particle, wet particle, and wet dissolved), air (gaseous and particle) samples, and soil samples that were collected from March 2012 to March 2013. Of all eight PBDEs, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in both deposition samples and air/soil samples. Average dry particle, wet particle, and wet dissolved deposition fluxes of Σ8PBDEs were 270 ± 310 pg m−2 day−1, 130 ± 210 pg m−2 day−1, and 250 ± 330 pg m−2 day−1, respectively, while those of BDE-209 were 210 ± 290 pg m−2 day−1, 80 ± 120 pg m−2 day−1, and 160 ± 290 pg m−2 day−1, respectively. Dry deposition velocities of individual PBDE ranged from 0.11 ± 0.15 cm s−1 (BDE-183) to 0.24 ± 0.38 cm s−1 (BDE-209), and total washout ratios ranged from 5.0 × 103 (BDE-28) to 4.2 × 104 (BDE-209). The calculated net air–soil gas exchange flux of Σ8PBDEs was − 16 ± 13 pg m−2 day−1, suggesting the deposition status of PBDEs. The gas exchange flux at the air–soil interface was significantly lower than the deposition flux, which only accounted for 2.5% of the total deposition flux, implying that atmospheric deposition was an important input pathway for PBDEs to soils. Overall, the pollution level of the soil was relatively low, and the soil serves as a sink for PBDEs from adjacent regions.
KeywordsPBDEs Wet and dry deposition Seasonal variation Air soil gas exchange Background site
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2017YFC0212603 and 2016YFC0200905), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. 41673102), the Wuhan Youth Science and Technology Program (Grant No. 2017050304010310), and the Open Foundation of Hubei Key Laboratory of Industrial Fume & Dust Pollution Control, Jianghan University (Grant No. HBIK2014-02).
- Argiriadis E, Rada EC, Vecchiato M, Zambon S, Ionescu G, Schiavon M, Ragazzi M, Gambaro A (2014) Assessing the influence of local sources on POPs in atmospheric depositions and sediments near Trento (Italy). Atmos Environ 98:32–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Degrendele C, Audy O, Hofman J, Kucerik J, Kukucka P, Mulder MD, Pribylova P, Prokes R, Sanka M, Schaumann GE, Lammel G (2016) Diurnal variations of air-soil exchange of semivolatile organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs) in a Central European receptor area. Environ Sci Technol 50:4278–4288. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05671 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guo LC, Bao LJ, Wu FC, Yue Q, Zeng EY (2014) Seasonal deposition fluxes and removal efficiency of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a large urban center: importance of natural and anthropogenic factors. Environ Sci Technol 48:11196–11203. https://doi.org/10.1021/es503698f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Koblizková M, Růzicková P, Cupr P, Komprda J, Holoubek I, Klánová J (2009) Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants: their levels, fate, and risks. Part iv. Quantification of volatilization fluxes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated soil surfaces. Environ Sci Technol 43:3588–3595. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9003944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Okonski K, Degrendele C, Melymuk L, Landlová L, Kukučka P, Vojta Š, Kohoutek J, Čupr P, Klánová J (2014) Particle size distribution of halogenated flame retardants and implications for atmospheric deposition and transport. Environ Sci Technol 48:14426–14434. https://doi.org/10.1021/es5044547 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- POPs Action in China (2017) Three substances were added to the list at the eighth conference of the parties to the Stockholm Convention. http://www.china-pops.org/znxw/photo/201710/t20171026_94900.html
- Stockholm Convention (2014) The new POPs under the Stockholm Convention. http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/ThePOPs/TheNewPOPs/tabid/2511/Default.aspx
- Zhan LX, Lin T, Wang ZW, Cheng ZN, Zhang G, Lyu XP, Cheng HR (2017) Occurrence and air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls at a CAWNET background site in Central China: implications for influencing factors and fate. Chemosphere 186:475–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar