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Atmospheric deposition and air–soil exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a background site in Central China

  • Lingxi Zhan
  • Tian Lin
  • Hairong ChengEmail author
  • Zuwu Wang
  • Zhineng Cheng
  • Deng Zhou
  • Zhengxin Qin
  • Gan Zhang
Research Article
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

Jinsha (JSH) is one of the regional background sites in Central China. In this study, eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmospheric deposition samples (dry particle, wet particle, and wet dissolved), air (gaseous and particle) samples, and soil samples that were collected from March 2012 to March 2013. Of all eight PBDEs, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in both deposition samples and air/soil samples. Average dry particle, wet particle, and wet dissolved deposition fluxes of Σ8PBDEs were 270 ± 310 pg m−2 day−1, 130 ± 210 pg m−2 day−1, and 250 ± 330 pg m−2 day−1, respectively, while those of BDE-209 were 210 ± 290 pg m−2 day−1, 80 ± 120 pg m−2 day−1, and 160 ± 290 pg m−2 day−1, respectively. Dry deposition velocities of individual PBDE ranged from 0.11 ± 0.15 cm s−1 (BDE-183) to 0.24 ± 0.38 cm s−1 (BDE-209), and total washout ratios ranged from 5.0 × 103 (BDE-28) to 4.2 × 104 (BDE-209). The calculated net air–soil gas exchange flux of Σ8PBDEs was − 16 ± 13 pg m−2 day−1, suggesting the deposition status of PBDEs. The gas exchange flux at the air–soil interface was significantly lower than the deposition flux, which only accounted for 2.5% of the total deposition flux, implying that atmospheric deposition was an important input pathway for PBDEs to soils. Overall, the pollution level of the soil was relatively low, and the soil serves as a sink for PBDEs from adjacent regions.

Keywords

PBDEs Wet and dry deposition Seasonal variation Air soil gas exchange Background site 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2017YFC0212603 and 2016YFC0200905), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. 41673102), the Wuhan Youth Science and Technology Program (Grant No. 2017050304010310), and the Open Foundation of Hubei Key Laboratory of Industrial Fume & Dust Pollution Control, Jianghan University (Grant No. HBIK2014-02).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6312_MOESM1_ESM.docx (83 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 83 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, International Cooperation Base for Sustainable Utilization of Resources and Energy in Hubei ProvinceWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina
  3. 3.Hubei Key Laboratory of Industrial Fume & Dust Pollution ControlJianghan UniversityWuhanChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  5. 5.Meteorological Bureau of XianningXianningChina

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