Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 30941–30953 | Cite as

Photocatalytic mineralization of hard-degradable morphine by visible light-driven Ag@g-C3N4 nanostructures

  • Hossein Azizi-ToupkanlooEmail author
  • Mahdi Karimi-NazarabadEmail author
  • Mahbubeh Shakeri
  • Mohammad Eftekhari
Research Article

Abstract

The entrance of some hard-degradable pharmaceutical contaminants can cause irreparable damage to humans and other organisms; therefore, removing these pollutants from water is one of the most important activities in water purification field. In this work, the mineralization of morphine was performed using photocatalytic degradation method. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets, due to their promising tunable characteristics, were chosen as visible-light-driven nanostructured heterogeneous photocatalyst. To enhance the photocatalytic activity, g-C3N4 was doped with Ag noble metal due to its surface plasmon resonance effect and acting as an electron sink. The photodegradation of morphine was evaluated under different pH values, the dosage of the photocatalyst, initial concentration of morphine, and Ag% loading under sunlight as green energy. The maximum efficiency was obtained in the very low concentration of Ag@g-C3N4 photocatalyst with the superior low value of 0.17 g L−1. Near complete mineralization of morphine was achieved by Ag@g-C3N4 with metal content percentage equal to 5 in 180 min and pH = 2. Also, using various active species scavengers, superoxide anion radical was identified as the main responsible species in the photocatalysis reaction of morphine degradation.

Keywords

Ag@g-C3N4 Morphine Photodegradation Mineralization Scavengers 

Notes

Funding information

The University of Neyshabur supported this project (Grant No. 96/1098).

References

  1. Ahmed S, Rasul MG, Brown R, Hashib MA (2011) Influence of parameters on the heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of pesticides and phenolic contaminants in wastewater: a short review. J Environ Manag 92:311–330Google Scholar
  2. Alnajjar AO, El-Zaria ME (2008) Synthesis and characterization of novel azo-morphine derivatives for possible use in abused drugs analysis. Eur J Med Chem 43:357–363Google Scholar
  3. Azizi-Toupkanloo H, Goharshadi EK, Nancarrow P (2014) Structural, electrical, and rheological properties of palladium/silver bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by conventional and ultrasonic-assisted reduction methods. Adv Powder Technol 25:801–810Google Scholar
  4. Bai X, Wang L, Zong R, Zhu Y (2013) Photocatalytic activity enhanced via g-C3N4 Nanoplates to Nanorods. J Phys Chem C 117:9952–9961Google Scholar
  5. Bai X, Zong R, Li C, Liu D, Liu Y, Zhu Y (2014) Enhancement of visible photocatalytic activity via ag@C3N4 core–shell plasmonic composite. Appl Catal B Environ 147:82–91Google Scholar
  6. Banerjee S, Chattopadhyaya MC, Srivastava V, Sharma YC (2014) Adsorption studies of methylene blue onto activated saw dust: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 33:790–799Google Scholar
  7. Barman S, Sadhukhan M (2012) Facile bulk production of highly blue fluorescent graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots and their application as highly selective and sensitive sensors for the detection of mercuric and iodide ions in aqueous media. J Mater Chem 22:21832–21837Google Scholar
  8. Behnajady MA, Modirshahla N, Hamzavi R (2006) Kinetic study on photocatalytic degradation of C.I. acid yellow 23 by ZnO photocatalyst. J Hazard Mater 133:226–232Google Scholar
  9. Bhatkhande DS, Pangarkar VG, Beenackers AACM (2002) Photocatalytic degradation for environmental applications – a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 77:102–116Google Scholar
  10. Bian J, Xi L, Huang C, Lange KM, Zhang R-Q, Shalom M (2016) Efficiency enhancement of carbon nitride Photoelectrochemical cells via tailored monomers design. Adv Energy Mater 6:1600263Google Scholar
  11. Cao S, Low J, Yu J, Jaroniec M (2015) Polymeric Photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride. Adv Mater 27:2150–2176Google Scholar
  12. Chen Z, Yu A, Ahmed R, Wang H, Li H, Chen Z (2012) Manganese dioxide nanotube and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube based composite bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air battery. Electrochim Acta 69:295–300Google Scholar
  13. Cui T, Lv R, Huang Z-H, Zhu H, Zhang J, Li Z, Jia Y, Kang F, Wang K, Wu D (2011) Synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon thin films and their applications in solar cells. Carbon 49:5022–5028Google Scholar
  14. Daneshvar N, Salari D, Khataee AR (2004) Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water on ZnO as an alternative catalyst to TiO2. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 162:317–322Google Scholar
  15. Degenhardt L, Hall W (2012) Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease. Lancet 379:55–70Google Scholar
  16. Dong G, Zhang Y, Pan Q, Qiu J (2014) A fantastic graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) material: electronic structure, photocatalytic and photoelectronic properties. J Photochem Photobiol C: Photochem Rev 20:33–50Google Scholar
  17. Fu Y, Huang T, Zhang L, Zhu J, Wang X (2015) Ag/g-C3N4 catalyst with superior catalytic performance for the degradation of dyes: a borohydride-generated superoxide radical approach. Nanoscale 7:13723–13733Google Scholar
  18. Ge L (2011) Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of novel metal-free g-C3N4 photocatalysts. Mater Lett 65:2652–2654Google Scholar
  19. Ge L, Han C, Liu J, Li Y (2011) Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of novel polymeric g-C3N4 loaded with ag nanoparticles. Appl Catal A Gen 409-410:215–222Google Scholar
  20. Ghanbari M, Rounaghi GH, Ashraf N, Paydar M, Razavipanah I, Karimi-Nazarabad M (2017) A facile approach for synthesis of a novel WO3–gC3N4/Pt–Sn–Os catalyst and its application for methanol electro-oxidation. J Clust Sci 28:2133–2146Google Scholar
  21. Goettmann F, Fischer A, Antonietti M, Thomas A (2006) Chemical synthesis of mesoporous carbon nitrides using hard templates and their use as a metal-free catalyst for Friedel–crafts reaction of benzene. Angew Chem Int Ed 45:4467–4471Google Scholar
  22. Goharshadi EK, Azizi-Toupkanloo H (2013) Silver colloid nanoparticles: ultrasound-assisted synthesis, electrical and rheological properties. Powder Technol 237:97–101Google Scholar
  23. Goharshadi EK, Hadadian M, Karimi M, Azizi-Toupkanloo H (2013) Photocatalytic degradation of reactive black 5 azo dye by zinc sulfide quantum dots prepared by a sonochemical method. Mater Sci Semicond Process 16:1109–1116Google Scholar
  24. Goharshadi EK, Azizi-Toupkanloo H, Karimi M (2015) Electrical conductivity of water-based palladium nanofluids. Microfluid Nanofluid 18:667–672Google Scholar
  25. Guo S, Deng Z, Li M, Jiang B, Tian C, Pan Q, Fu H (2016) Phosphorus-doped carbon nitride tubes with a layered micro-nanostructure for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Angew Chem Int Ed 55:1830–1834Google Scholar
  26. Gupta VK, Suhas (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal – a review. J Environ Manag 90:2313–2342Google Scholar
  27. Hara M, Hitoki G, Takata T, Kondo JN, Kobayashi H, Domen K (2003) TaON and Ta3N5 as new visible light driven photocatalysts. Catal Today 78:555–560Google Scholar
  28. Hara M, Takata T, Kondo JN, Domen K (2004) Photocatalytic reduction of water by TaON under visible light irradiation. Catal Today 90:313–317Google Scholar
  29. Hu SW, Yang LW, Tian Y, Wei XL, Ding JW, Zhong JX, Chu PK (2015) Simultaneous nanostructure and heterojunction engineering of graphitic carbon nitride via in situ ag doping for enhanced photoelectrochemical activity. Appl Catal B Environ 163:611–622Google Scholar
  30. Huang L, Xu H, Li Y, Li H, Cheng X, Xia J, Xu Y, Cai G (2013) Visible-light-induced WO3/g-C3N4 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Dalton Trans 42:8606–8616Google Scholar
  31. Jiang J, Cao S, Hu C, Chen C (2017) A comparison study of alkali metal-doped g-C3N4 for visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Chin J Catal 38:1981–1989Google Scholar
  32. Kannan N, Sundaram MM (2001) Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption on various carbons—a comparative study. Dyes Pigments 51:25–40Google Scholar
  33. Karimi-Nazarabad M, Goharshadi EK (2017) Highly efficient photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity of solar light driven WO3/g-C3N4 nanocomposite. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 160:484–493Google Scholar
  34. Katsumata K-i, Motoyoshi R, Matsushita N, Okada K (2013) Preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/WO3 composites and enhanced visible-light-driven photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas. J Hazard Mater 260:475–482Google Scholar
  35. Klementova S, Kahoun D, Doubkova L, Frejlachova K, Dusakova M, Zlamal M (2017) Catalytic photodegradation of pharmaceuticals – homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis. Photochem Photobiol Sci 16:67–71Google Scholar
  36. Kohtani S, Koshiko M, Kudo A, Tokumura K, Ishigaki Y, Toriba A, Hayakawa K, Nakagaki R (2003) Photodegradation of 4-alkylphenols using BiVO4 photocatalyst under irradiation with visible light from a solar simulator. Appl Catal B Environ 46:573–586Google Scholar
  37. Labinger JA, Bercaw JE (2002) Understanding and exploiting C–H bond activation. Nature 417:507–514Google Scholar
  38. Li J, Shen B, Hong Z, Lin B, Gao B, Chen Y (2012) A facile approach to synthesize novel oxygen-doped g-C3N4 with superior visible-light photoreactivity. Chem Commun 48:12017–12019Google Scholar
  39. Li Y, Wu S, Huang L, Wang J, Xu H, Li H (2014) Synthesis of carbon-doped g-C3N4 composites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. Mater Lett 137:281–284Google Scholar
  40. Li Q, Li X, Wageh S, Al-Ghamdi AA, Yu J (2015) CdS/graphene nanocomposite Photocatalysts. Adv Energy Mater 5:1500010Google Scholar
  41. Li Z, Kong C, Lu G (2016) Visible photocatalytic water splitting and photocatalytic two-Electron oxygen formation over cu- and Fe-doped g-C3N4. J Phys Chem C 120:56–63Google Scholar
  42. Liu Q, Zhang J (2013) Graphene supported co-g-C3N4 as a novel metal–macrocyclic Electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Langmuir 29:3821–3828Google Scholar
  43. Liu G, Niu P, Sun C, Smith SC, Chen Z, Lu GQ, Cheng H-M (2010) Unique electronic structure induced high Photoreactivity of sulfur-doped graphitic C3N4. J Am Chem Soc 132:11642–11648Google Scholar
  44. Luo L, Li Y, Hou J, Yang Y (2014) Visible photocatalysis and photostability of Ag3PO4 photocatalyst. Appl Surf Sci 319:332–338Google Scholar
  45. Mahvelati-Shamsabadi T, Goharshadi EK, Karimi-Nazarabad M (2019) Z-scheme design of ag@g-C3N4/ZnS photoanode device for efficient solar water oxidation: an organic-inorganic electronic interface. Int J Hydrog Energy 44:13085–13097Google Scholar
  46. Pal R, Megharaj M, Kirkbride KP, Naidu R (2013) Illicit drugs and the environment — a review. Sci Total Environ 463-464:1079–1092Google Scholar
  47. Pelaez M, Nolan NT, Pillai SC, Seery MK, Falaras P, Kontos AG, Dunlop PSM, Hamilton JWJ, Byrne JA, O'Shea K, Entezari MH, Dionysiou DD (2012) A review on the visible light active titanium dioxide photocatalysts for environmental applications. Appl Catal B Environ 125:331–349Google Scholar
  48. Pradeep T, Anshup (2009) Noble metal nanoparticles for water purification: a critical review. Thin Solid Films 517:6441–6478Google Scholar
  49. Rajoriya S, Bargole S, George S, Saharan VK, Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2019) Synthesis and characterization of samarium and nitrogen doped TiO2 photocatalysts for photo-degradation of 4-acetamidophenol in combination with hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation. Sep Purif Technol 209:254–269Google Scholar
  50. Reyes R, Legnani C, Pinto PMR, Cremona M, Araújo PJGD, Achete CA (2003) Room-temperature low-voltage electroluminescence in amorphous carbon nitride thin films. Appl Phys Lett 82:4017–4019Google Scholar
  51. Shannon MA, Bohn PW, Elimelech M, Georgiadis JG, Mariñas BJ, Mayes AM (2008) Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades. Nature 452:301–310Google Scholar
  52. Soltani T, Entezari MH (2013) Solar photocatalytic degradation of RB5 by ferrite bismuth nanoparticles synthesized via ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem 20:1245–1253Google Scholar
  53. Xian T, Yang H, Dai JF, Wei ZQ, Ma JY, Feng WJ (2011) Photocatalytic properties of SrTiO3 nanoparticles prepared by a polyacrylamide gel route. Mater Lett 65:3254–3257Google Scholar
  54. Yan SC, Li ZS, Zou ZG (2009) Photodegradation performance of g-C3N4 fabricated by directly heating melamine. Langmuir 25:10397–10401Google Scholar
  55. Yan SC, Li ZS, Zou ZG (2010) Photodegradation of rhodamine B and methyl Orange over boron-doped g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation. Langmuir 26:3894–3901Google Scholar
  56. Yang Y, Guo Y, Liu F, Yuan X, Guo Y, Zhang S, Guo W, Huo M (2013) Preparation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of silver deposited graphitic carbon nitride plasmonic photocatalyst. Appl Catal B Environ 142-143:828–837Google Scholar
  57. Yu H, Shang L, Bian T, Shi R, Waterhouse GIN, Zhao Y, Zhou C, Wu L-Z, Tung C-H, Zhang T (2016) Nitrogen-doped porous carbon Nanosheets templated from g-C3N4 as metal-free Electrocatalysts for efficient oxygen reduction reaction. Adv Mater 28:5080–5086Google Scholar
  58. Zhang Y, Pan Q, Chai G, Liang M, Dong G, Zhang Q, Qiu J (2013) Synthesis and luminescence mechanism of multicolor-emitting g-C3N4 nanopowders by low temperature thermal condensation of melamine. Sci Rep 3:1943Google Scholar
  59. Zhao Z, Sun Y, Dong F (2015) Graphitic carbon nitride based nanocomposites: a review. Nanoscale 7:15–37Google Scholar
  60. Zhu B, Zhang J, Jiang C, Cheng B, Yu J (2017) First principle investigation of halogen-doped monolayer g-C3N4 photocatalyst. Appl Catal B Environ 207:27–34Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of NeyshaburNeyshaburIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Samen Hojaj, Mashhad BranchTechnical and Vocational UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations