Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 31273–31283 | Cite as

Dynamic linkages between tourism, energy, environment, and economic growth: evidence from top 10 tourism-induced countries

  • Kanwal Shaheen
  • Khalid ZamanEmail author
  • Rubeena Batool
  • Muhammad Adnan Khurshid
  • Alamzeb Aamir
  • Alaa Mohamd Shoukry
  • Mohamed A. Sharkawy
  • Fares Aldeek
  • Jameel Khader
  • Showkat Gani
Research Article


The importance of sustainable tourism in environmental literature is well documented, while there is a need to explore its different socio-economic and environmental factors that are helpful to promote sustainable development across countries. The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between international tourism (ITOUR), energy demand (ED), carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), and economic growth (EG) by using a panel data of top 10 tourism-induced countries for the period of 1995–2016. The findings confirmed the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis in the panel of top 10 countries. Moreover, the results show that FDI inflows negatively influenced natural environment in the form of high mass carbon emissions, which supported “pollution haven hypothesis (PHH).” The energy demand escalates carbon emissions across countries. The study confirmed the feedback relationship between (i) tourism income (TI) and ED, and (ii) CO2 emissions and international tourism departures (ITD), while study supported the growth-led tourism income across countries. The study concludes that government(s) should have to focus on ecotourism policies and energy resources in a way to mitigate carbon emissions that is imperative for sustainable development across countries.


International tourism Energy demand CO2 emissions Trade openness EKC hypothesis Pollution haven hypothesis Panel cointegration 



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group no. RG-1437-027.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanwal Shaheen
    • 1
  • Khalid Zaman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rubeena Batool
    • 2
  • Muhammad Adnan Khurshid
    • 3
  • Alamzeb Aamir
    • 4
  • Alaa Mohamd Shoukry
    • 5
  • Mohamed A. Sharkawy
    • 6
  • Fares Aldeek
    • 7
  • Jameel Khader
    • 7
  • Showkat Gani
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of WahWah CanttPakistan
  2. 2.Gender and Development Studies DepartmentUniversity of BalochistanQuettaPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Business AdministrationSindh Madressatul Islam UniversityKarachiPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Management SciencesFATA UniversityFR KohatPakistan
  5. 5.Arriyadh Community CollegeKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Administrative ScienceKSA Workers UniversityMansouraEgypt
  7. 7.College of Business AdministrationKing Saud UniversityAl-MuzahimiyahSaudi Arabia

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