Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 31328–31343 | Cite as

Degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane by photocatalysis using immobilized PAni-TiO2 nano-photocatalyst

  • Mahdi Mohsenzadeh
  • Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri
  • Samad SabbaghiEmail author
Research Article


1,2-Dichloroethane is one of the most hazardous environmental pollutants in wastewaters. It is mainly used to produce vinyl chloride monomer, the major precursor for PVC production. It is determined to be a probable human carcinogen and has been listed as a priority pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Due to high chemical stability and low biodegradability of 1,2-dichloroethane, heterogeneous photocatalysis was used for degradation of this chlorinated hydrocarbon. PAni-TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by in situ deposition oxidative polymerization method and immobilized on glass beads by a modified dip coating and heat attachment method. The characteristics of synthesized PAni-TiO2 nanoparticles were confirmed using the results of morphology tests including Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns, particle size analysis, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The performance of photocatalytic degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane using synthesized PAni-TiO2 nanocomposite in a designed and constructed pilot scale packed bed recirculating photocatalytic reactor under xenon light irradiation was investigated. The response surface methodology based on the central composite design was used to evaluate and optimize the effect of 1,2-dichloroethane concentration, residence time, pH, and coating mass as independent variables on the photocatalytic degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane as the response function. Results showed that actual and predicted results were well fitted with R2 of 0.9870, adjusted R2 of 0.9718, and predicted R2 of 0.9422. The optimum conditions for 1,2-dichloroethane photocatalytic degradation were the 1,2-dichloroethane concentration of 250 mg/L, the residence time of 240 min, pH of 5, and coating mass of 0.5 mg/cm2, which resulted in 88.84% photocatalytic degradation. Kinetic of the photocatalytic degradation at optimal condition follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood first-order reaction with k = 0.0095 min−1 with R2 = 0.9455. Complete photocatalytic degradation of 1,2-DCE was achieved after 360 min.


PAni-TiO2 1,2-Dichloroethane Photocatalytic degradation Pilot-scale photoreactor Response surface methodology Immobilization 



The authors gratefully acknowledge K.N. Toosi University of Technology for supporting this project.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by K.N. Toosi University of Technology.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahdi Mohsenzadeh
    • 1
  • Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri
    • 2
  • Samad Sabbaghi
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil EngineeringK.N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil EngineeringK.N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Nanochemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Advanced TechnologiesShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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