Fumigant effect of essential oils on mortality and fertility of thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Perg
The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.) is one of the most economically important insect pests of greenhouse plants. Plant protection against this pest is based predominantly on synthetic insecticides; however, this form of protection poses problems in terms of thrip resistance to the active substances, along with health risks associated with insecticide residues on the treated plants. Therefore, new active substances need to be sought. Essential oils could be a new, appropriate, and safe alternative for greenhouse culture protection. As greenhouses are enclosed areas, fumigation application of EOs is possible. This paper presents acute toxicity results for 15 commercial EOs applied by fumigation, as well as the effect of sublethal concentrations on fertility of F. occidentalis females. The most efficient EOs were obtained from Mentha pulegium and Thymus mastichina, with LC50(90) estimated as 3.1(3.8) and 3.6 (4.6) mg L−1 air, respectively. As found for the very first time, sublethal concentrations of EOs could result in a significant reduction in the fertility of surviving T. occidentalis females. Among the tested EOs, the EO from Nepeta cataria provided the highest inhibition of fertility, with EC50(90) estimated as 0.18 (0.36) mg L−1 air. Chemical composition of the most efficient EOs and possible applications of the results in practice are discussed. In conclusion, in light of the newly determined facts, EOs can be recommended as active substances for botanical insecticides to be applied against Thysanopteran pests by fumigation.
KeywordsBotanical insecticides Greenhouse Essential oils Thrips Fumigant toxicity Sublethal effect
Financial support for the botanical pesticide and basic substance research was provided by the Ministry of Agriculture of the CR (Project No. QK1910103)
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adams RP (2007) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Co., Carol Stream, ILGoogle Scholar
- Benelli G, Pavela R, Giordani C, Casettari L, Curzi G, Cappellacci L, Petrelli R, Maggi F (2018) Acute and sub-lethal toxicity of eight essential oils of commercial interest against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and the housefly Musca domestica. Ind Crop Prod 112:668–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cheng ZH, Duan HJ, Zhu XR, Fan FF, Li R, Li SC, Ma XY, Zhang EJ, Liu YK, Wang JY (2019) Effects of patchouli and wormwood oils on the bioassays and behaviors of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Inter J Pest Manag:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/09670874.2019.1636155
- Childers CC (1997) Feeding and oviposition injuries to plants. In: Lewis T (ed) Thrips as Crop Pests. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 505–537Google Scholar
- Enan EE (2001) Insecticidal activity of essential oils: octopaminergic sites of action. Comp Biochem Physiol 130C:320–325Google Scholar
- Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University, London, pp 68–78Google Scholar
- Helyer N, Brown K, Cattlin ND (2003) Biological control in plant protection. Manson publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Isman MB (2015) A renaissance for botanical insecticides? Pest Manag. Sci 71:1587–1590Google Scholar
- Koschier EH (2008) Essential oil compounds for thrips control - a review. Nat Prod Comm 3:1171–1182Google Scholar