Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 30967–30979 | Cite as

Assessment of the effectiveness of policy interventions for Air Quality Control Regions in Delhi city

  • Prachi Goyal
  • Sunil GuliaEmail author
  • Sanjeev Kumar Goyal
  • Rakesh Kumar
Research Article


Government has implemented various scattered and un-quantified control actions in Delhi city to reduce the air pollution levels; however, it still exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The present study has been designed to assess the air quality status, identify Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), and evaluate control strategies in the city. Out of eight selected locations, ambient PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 concentrations were found exceeding the daily as well as annual standards at selected AQCR with peak levels during post-monsoon than winter and summer. Anand Vihar was found to be most polluted and thus, selected as an AQCR. AERMOD performed satisfactorily in predicting pollutant concentration during winter and summer having an index of agreement in the range 0.54–0.80. PM10 and PM2.5 can be reduced substantially by increasing frequency of efficient mechanized cleaning of roads and sprinkling of water on the roads. Progressive decrease in NO2 concentrations can be achieved by restricting entry of truck in the study area through alternate path. The cumulative impact of all selected control strategies indicates a substantial decrease in air pollution within AQCR. The study also suggests a policy framework to manage the urban air quality through local scale air quality guidelines.


Local air quality management Source interventions Air Quality Control Region Seasonal analysis Regulatory compliance 



Air Quality Control Region


Air Quality Index


Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations


Location-specific Air Quality Management Plan


National Ambient Air Quality Standards


Urban Local Body


Supplementary material

11356_2019_6236_MOESM1_ESM.docx (47 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 47.3 kb)


  1. Amato F, Querol X, Johansson C, Nagl C, Alastuey A (2010) A review on the effectiveness of street sweeping, washing and dust suppressants as urban PM control methods. Sci Total Environ 408(16):3070–3084. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amato F, Alastuey A, Karanasiou A, Lucarelli F, Nava S, Calzolai G, Severi M, Becagli S, Gianelle VL, Colombi C, Alves C, Custodio D, Nunes T, Cerqueira M, Pio C, Eleftheriadis K, Diapouli E, Reche C, Minguillon MC, Manousakas MI, Maggos T, Vratolis S, Harrison RM, Querol X (2016) AIRUSE-LIFEC: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities. Atmos Chem Phys 16:3289–3309. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Behera SN, Sharma M, Mishra PK, Nayak P, Fontaine BD, Tahon R (2015) Passive measurement of NO2 and application of GIS to generate spatially-distributed air monitoring network in urban environment. Urban Climate 14:396–413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CPCB (2010) Air quality monitoring, emission inventory and source apportionment study for Indian cities, The Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. Accessed 10 August 2017
  5. CPCB (2017) Graded Response Action Plan for Delhi & NCR. Accessed 27 September 2017
  6. Gazette of India (2016) Accessed 29 September 2017
  7. Gokhale S, Khare M (2006) Statistical behavior of carbon monoxide from vehicular exhausts in urban environments. Environ Modell Softw 22:526–535. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goyal SK, Goel S, Nema P, Tamhane SM (2006) Understanding urban vehicular pollution problem vis-à-vis- ambient air quality- case study of a megacity (Delhi, India). Environ Monit Assess 119:557–569. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gulia S, Kumar A, Khare M (2015) Performance evaluation of CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models for air quality assessment of an industrial complex. J Sci Ind Res 74:302–307Google Scholar
  10. Gulia S, Nagendra SMS, Khare M (2016) Extreme events of reactive ambient air pollutants and their distribution pattern at urban hotspots. Aerosol Air Qual Res 17:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gulia S, Nagendra SMS, Barnes J, Khare M (2017) Urban local air quality management framework for non-attainment areas in Indian cities. Sci Total Environ 619–620:1308–1318. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gummeneni S, Yusup Y, Chavali M, Samadi SZ (2011) Source apportionment of particulate matter in ambient air of Hyderabad city, India. Atmos Res 101:752–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gurjar BR, Butler TM, Lawrence MG, Lelieveld J (2008) Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities. Atmos Environ 42:1593–1606. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hopke PK, Cohen D, Begum BA, Biswas SK, Ni B, Pandit G, Santoso M, Chung YS, Rahman SA, Hamzah MS, Davy P, Markwitz A, Waheed S, Siddique N, Santos FL, Pabroa PCB, Senevirante MCS, Wimolwttanapun W, Bunprabob S, Bac VT, Hien PD, Markowicz A (2008) Urban air quality in the Asia region. Sci Total Environ 404:103–112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar A, Dixit S, Varadarajan C, Vijayan A, Masuraha A (2006) Evaluation of the AERMOD dispersion model as a function of atmospheric stability for an urban area. Environ Prog 25:141–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumar P, Gulia S, Harrison RM, Khare M (2017) The influence of odd-even car trial on fine and coarse particles in Delhi. Environ Pollut 225:20–30.
  17. Kumar P, Jain S, Gurjar BR, Morawska L (2013) New directions: can a “blue sky: return to Indian megacities?”. Atmos Environ 71:198–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Longhurst JWS, Lindley SJ, Watson AFR, Conlan DE (1996) The introduction of local air quality management in the United Kingdom: a review and theoretical framework. Atmos Environ 30:3975–3985. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mohan M, Bhati S, Marrapu P (2009) Performance evaluation of AERMOD and ADMS – urban models in a tropical urban environment. Indian J Air Pollut Cont 9:47–62Google Scholar
  20. Pant P, Shukla A, Kohl SD, Chow JC, Watson JG (2015) Characterization of ambient PM 2.5 at a pollution hotspot in New Delhi India and inference of source. Atmos Environ 109:178–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Perrino C, Tiwari S, Catrambone M, Torre SD, Rantica E, Canepari S (2011) Chemical characterization of atmospheric PM in Delhi, India, during different periods of the year including Diwali festival. Atmos Pollut Res 2:418–427. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sharma M, Dikshit O (2016) Comprehensive study on air pollution and green house gases (GHGs) in Delhi. Final Report, Prepared by IIT Kanpur, sponsored by Delhi Pollution Control Committee, New Delhi. 298 pages.Google Scholar
  23. Sharma P, Jain S, Kumar P (2013) An integrated statistical approach for evaluating the exceedence of criteria pollutants in the ambient air of megacity Delhi. Atmos Environ 70:7–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xu H, Cao J, Chow JC, Huang RJ, Chen Z, Chen LWA, Ho KF, Watson JG (2016) Inter-annual variability of wintertime PM2.5 chemical composition in Xi’an China: evidences of changing source emissions. Sci Total Environ 545-546:546–555. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhang R, Jing J, Tao J, Hsu SC, Wang G, Co J, Lee CSL, Zhu L, Chen J, Zhao Y, Shen Z (2013) Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing: seasonal perspective. Atmos Chem Phys 13:7053–7074. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prachi Goyal
    • 1
  • Sunil Gulia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanjeev Kumar Goyal
    • 1
  • Rakesh Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.CSIR-NEERI Delhi Zonal CentreNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.CSIR-NEERINagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations