COP negotiations and Malaysian climate change roadmap: a comparative assessment using a dynamic environmental model

  • Adeel AhmedEmail author
  • Abul Quasem Al-Amin
  • Rajah Rasiah
Research Article


This study critically evaluates two COP proposals on Malaysia that have been under consideration to reduce climate damage. A top-down disaggregation framework deploying an “Empirical Regional Downscaling Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy” is used to evaluate the local government climate roadmap and Malaysia’s emissions reduction agendas under COP21 and subsequently COP22 proposals. The findings show that the costs from climate damage over the period 2010–2110 under the Malaysian Optimal Climate Action scenario will amount to MYR5,483 (US$1589) billion. The commensurate climate damage costs under the COP21 and COP22 scenario would be MYR5, 264 (US$1526) billion. Thus, the effective proposal for reducing climate damage in Malaysia over the period 2010–2110 is the COP22 time-adjusted COP21 proposal but there are a number of macroeconomic cost implications for savings and consumption that policy makers must address before acting.


Climate change mitigation COP Climate roadmap Government policy Malaysia 


Funding information

This work is supported by three grants, namely, the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) at University of Malaya (UM.0000426/HME.FS), UNITEN BOLD grants (PROJECT CODE: 10289176/B/9/2017/18); LRGS grants, International Business School (IBS), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM); and Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW) Germany. The authors would like to thank UM, UTM, UNITEN, and HAW for the financial support to do the study.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6141_MOESM1_ESM.docx (58 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 57 kb)


  1. Al-Amin AQ, Filho WL (2014) A return to prioritizing needs: adaptation or mitigation alternatives? Prog Dev Stud 14(4):359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burck J, Marten F, Bals C (2014) The climate change performance index: results 2015. Germanwatch, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  3. Christoff P (2016) The promissory note: COP 21 and the Paris Climate Agreement. Environmental Politics 25(5):765–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. COP20 (2014) The cornerstone for commitment to the future of our climate, LimaGoogle Scholar
  5. DOS. (2010). Input-output table of Malaysia 2005: Ministry of Finance, Department of StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  6. DOS (2013a) Malaysia economic statistics (MES)-time series. Department of Statistics, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  7. DOS. (2013b). Economic report, various issues. Ministry of Finance:Malaysia Department of StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  8. EP U (2010) Tenth Malaysia plan 2011–2015. Prime Minister Department, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
  9. Hosseini SE, Wahid MA, Aghili N (2013) The scenario of greenhouse gases reduction in Malaysia. Renew Sust Energ Rev 28:400–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. IPCC (2007) The physical science basis. Contribution of Working GroupIto the Fourthh Assessment Report of the Intergoverment Panel on Climate Change: Cambrige, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers LimitedGoogle Scholar
  11. MMD (2009) Climate change scenarios for Malaysia scientific report 2001–2099: numerical weather prediction development section technical development division. Malaysian Meteorological Department Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  12. NAHRIM (2006) Final report: study of the impact of climate change on the hydrologic regime and water resources of peninsular Malaysia, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Nordhaus W (2008) A question of balance: weighing the options on global warming policies. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  14. Nordhaus WD (2014) A question of balance: weighing the options on global warming policies. Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  15. Nordhaus, W., & Sztorc, P. (2013). DICE 2013R: introduction and user’s manual. retrieved NovemberGoogle Scholar
  16. Parliament, E ( 2016) Outcomes of COP22 Climate Change Conference,, access dated on 4 Apr 2017
  17. Rasiah R, Al-Amin AQ, Ahmed A, Filho WL, Calvo E (2016) Climate mitigation roadmap: assessing low carbon scenarios for Malaysia. J Clean Prod 133:272–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rosen RA, Guenther E (2015) The economics of mitigating climate change: what can we know? Technol Forecast Soc Chang 91:93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Stern NH (2007) The economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  20. Van den Bergh JC, Truffer B, Kallis G (2011) Environmental innovation and societal transitions: introduction and overview. Environ Innov Soc Transit 1(1):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeel Ahmed
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Abul Quasem Al-Amin
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rajah Rasiah
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of International Business and MarketingNUST Business SchoolIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Azman Hashim International Business SchoolUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Energy Policy and Research (IEPRe)Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)KajangMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Geography and Environmental ManagementUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  5. 5.Asia-Europe InstituteUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations