Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 31119–31132 | Cite as

Impact of bird dropping deposition on solar photovoltaic module performance: a systematic study in Western Rajasthan

  • Anil Kumar SisodiaEmail author
  • Ram kumar Mathur
Research Article


One of the most critical challenges is bird dropping deposition (soiling) on a glass surface of the photovoltaic (PV) module in an open environment of Western Rajasthan. This paper has been now exclusively emphasized to focus on effects of the bird dropping phenomenon on the performance of PV systems. The presented study includes the impact of the seasonal bird dropping effect on the reduction in energy yield with various tilt angle configurations. Considering this, the highest level of reduction in power loss was observed at the end of winter (March) and minimum during rainfall (August) every year. The sitting/walking tendency of birds with the plate inclination directly affects the PV output, which is demonstrated by optical study of glass samples (bird dropping patterns). Consequently, the studies of optical transmittance conclude the effect of dropping with different tilt regions I (β < 25°), II (25° ≤ β ≤ 60°), and III (60° ≤ β ≤ 90°), i.e., explained by bird movement onto the module surface. The result also showed that optimal inclination β (40°) has a smaller soiling effect in tilt region II (25–60°) correspondingly.


Bird dropping deposition Power loss Shadow effect PV module Soiling Western Rajasthan 



The authors would like to thank the IIT Jodhpur and Dept. of Physics, Samrat Prithiviraj Govt. College Ajmer (MDS University, Ajmer), for the support and help.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsSamrat Prithviraj Chauhan Government College, Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati UniversityAjmerIndia
  2. 2.Government Bangur Postgraduate CollegePaliIndia

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