Dietary intake assessment of pyrethroid residues from okra and eggplant grown in peri-urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan

  • Adnan Amjad
  • Muhammad Atif Randhawa
  • Muhammad Sameem JavedEmail author
  • Zafarullah Muhammad
  • Mussawar Ashraf
  • Zulfiqar Ahmad
  • Shamas Murtaza
Environmental Toxicology and Risks Associated with Human Health


This study was designed to assess the gradual increase in the use of insecticides on vegetables and to familiarize the consumers regarding the insecticide residues. The purpose of this research work was to highlight the detrimental effects of pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) compare with dietary intake assessment of eggplant and okra grown in peri-urban environment. In this manner, a total of 180 (n = 60 × 3) samples of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were procured from the peri-urban farming system of Faisalabad, Multan, and Gujranwala to assess the pyrethroid residues along with their dietary intake assessment. The procured vegetables were quantified for pyrethroid residues by using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Outcomes of this study revealed that for okra samples, the highest residues of bifenthrin (1.25 mg kg−1) were found in Gujranwala then Multan (1.5 mg kg−1) and Faisalabad (1.04 mg kg−1), whereas in eggplant, the highest residues were recorded for bifenthrin from Faisalabad (1.33 mg kg−1) and Gujranwala (0.78 mg kg−1). In Multan, the highest residues for cyfluthrin (1.18 mg kg−1) were reported in eggplant. Out of all analyzed samples for pyrethroid residues, 32% samples contained detectable residues and 6% samples exceeded their maximum residual limits (MRLs) established by the European Union (EU). Dietary intake assessment (mg kg−1 day−1) was calculated as per their maximum permissible intake (MPI) values, i.e., bifenthrin (1.28), cyfluthrin (1.28), cypermethrin (3.20), deltamethrin (0.64), fenvalerate (1.28), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.064), and permethrin (3.20) respectively. Conclusively, residues from the Multan region were greater than those from Gujranwala and Faisalabad showing excessive application of pyrethroids. Overall results revealed that although some samples exceeded MRLs in selected areas, their safe consumption limit was found.


Insecticide residues Safety Dietary intake Vegetables 



The authors are grateful to the National Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFSAT), Faisalabad, and Institute of Food Science and Nutrition (IFSN), Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, for providing laboratory facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food Science & NutritionBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  2. 2.National Institute of Food Science & TechnologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.College of Public HealthImam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.College of Food Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  5. 5.Department of Food Science and Technology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesThe Islamia University of BahawalpurBahawalpurPakistan
  6. 6.Department of Food Science and TechnologyMuhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, MultanMultanPakistan

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