Cadmium accumulation, availability, and rice uptake in soils receiving long-term applications of chemical fertilizers and crop straw return
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Fertilization and straw return have been widely adopted to maintain soil fertility and increase crop yields, but their long-term impacts on the accumulation and availability of cadmium (Cd) in paddy soils are still unconfirmed. Therefore, this study was undertaken in central China to investigate the accumulation, availability, and subsequent uptake of Cd by rice (Oryza sativa L.) in two adjacent field trials (P1 and P2, lasting for 10 and 12 years, respectively) under long-term straw return or in combination with chemical fertilizers. Obvious Cd accumulation, probably due to the notable Cd input from irrigation and traffic exhaust in the bulk soil (0–20 cm) of P1, was observed. The bulk soil of P2 received homogeneous straw return and chemical fertilizers, as did that of P1; however, the P2 soil almost showed Cd balance. Long-term straw return increased the portion of soil DTPA-extractable Cd to the total pool for both sites, but only P1 showed significant differences when compared to the controls. However, the highest Cd concentrations and the maximum bioconcentration factors in rice straw and grain were obtained using solo application of chemical fertilizers at both sites. Continuous additional applications of crop straw, in contrast, resulted in slightly decreased Cd uptake in rice straw, but not in grain. These findings demonstrate that neither long-term straw return nor fertilization leads directly to notable Cd accumulation, but that the promotion effects of long-term chemical fertilizer applications on Cd uptake in rice need more attention.
KeywordsLong-term field trials Cadmium Bioavailability Straw return Fertilization Bioconcentration factor
The authors thank the reviewers of the manuscript for their helpful comments.
We gratefully thank the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2017YFD0801003; 2016YFD0200807), Major Research and Development Project of Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (No. 2017CGPY01), Youth Foundation of Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (No. 2018NKYJJ05), and Non-profit Collaborative Innovation Alliance Project (No. 2018LM) for financial support of this research.
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