Soil heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment associated with development zones in Shandong, China
- 37 Downloads
Heavy metal pollution in soils of development zones has attracted wide attention. In this study, soil heavy metal pollution levels and health risks in 15 selected development zones in Shandong Province were investigated for the first time. Geo-accumulation and potential ecological risk indexes were used to assess pollution levels, and health risk was assessed using the US Environmental Protection Agency model. The soil was contaminated by various heavy metals, among which Hg was dominant. A total of 19% of the monitoring sites showed moderate ecological risk level, and low risk level was observed in general. Pollution control of Hg and Cd in each development zone must be strengthened. Health risk analysis showed that noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risk levels for adults and children were acceptable or nearly acceptable. Positive matrix factorization model was used to identify three possible sources of heavy metal pollution, namely, industrial sources, atmospheric deposition, and transportation. Some specific measures should be taken to prioritize the control of Hg, As, and Cr for protecting the soil environment and human health, especially vulnerable groups, such as children.
KeywordsDevelopment zone Heavy metal pollution Potential ecological risk Health risk Source apportionment
We thank the anonymous reviewers for their insights and critical review of the manuscript. We also thank ShineWrite.com’s professional editors for the language review. We also thank our teachers and classmates for their support.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41301649) and the Shandong Natural Science Foundation (No. ZR2018ZC2362).
- Institute CBR (2018) List of 173 development zones in Shandong Province in 2018Google Scholar
- Jan FA, Ishaq M, Khan S, Ihsanullah I, Ahmad I, Shakirullah M (2010) A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir). J Hazard Mater 179:612–621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Norris G, Duvall R (2014) EPA PMF 5.0 User Guide US Environmental Protection Agency:1–136Google Scholar
- Pang X, Dai J, Hu X (2018) Back ground values of soil geochemistry in Shandong Province Shandong. Land Resour 34:39–43Google Scholar
- Rastegari Mehr M, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Sharifi R, Lahijanzadeh A, Kermani M (2017) Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran. J Afr Earth Sci 132:16–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.04.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2002) Supplemental guidance for developing doil screening levels for superfund sites, vol 20460. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp 1–187Google Scholar
- USEPA (2004) “Supplemental guidance for dermal risk assessment,” part E of risk assessment guidance for superfund, human health evaluation manual. Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp 1–186Google Scholar
- Zhang X, Wei S, Sun Q, Wadood SA, Guo B (2018b) Source identification and spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in agricultural soil around Hunan industrial estate by positive matrix factorization model, principle components analysis and geo statistical analysis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 159:354–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.04.072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhuo H, Wang X, Liu H, Fu S, Song H, Ren L (2019) Source analysis and risk assessment of heavy metals in development zones: a case study in Rizhao, China. Environ Geochem Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-019-00313-7