Application of a stable carbon isotope for identifying Broussonetia papyrifera pollen
- 57 Downloads
The objective of this study was to investigate whether δ13C values can be used to identify pollen specie in the atmosphere. A Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap was used to collected pollens in the atmosphere in Tainan City, Taiwan, from January 2 to December 28, 2006, and a light microscope was used to identify the pollen species and concentrations. A Burkard cyclone sampler was used to collect particulate matter and an elemental analyzer with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer was used to analyze the δ13C values. Our data showed that the predominate pollen specie in the atmosphere was Broussonetia papyrifera pollen and that the annual average concentration was 27 grains/m3 (pollen season, 36; nonpollen season, 9 grains/m3). The average δ13C value was − 26.19‰ for particulate matter in the atmosphere (pollen season, − 26.00‰; nonpollen season, − 26.28‰). No significant association was observed between δ13C values and Broussonetia papyrifera pollen concentrations. However, the δ13C value in the atmosphere was associated with the levels of Broussonetia papyrifera pollen among the samples with a diameter of particulate matter smaller than 10 μm at a level lower than 40 μg/m3. In addition, the relative contribution of Broussonetia papyrifera pollen to the carbon in the atmosphere using a two end-member mixing models was found to be associated with the Broussonetia papyrifera pollen concentration. In summary, our study suggested that δ13C values can be applied in the assessment of Broussonetia papyrifera pollen specie under specific conditions in the atmosphere.
KeywordsPollen Broussonetia papyrifera Carbon isotope
We would like to thank Dr. Pei-Chih Wu and Dr. Kun-Cheng Chang for their experiment supporting the identification of pollen categories.
- Chou CC-K (2017) Development and application of carbon and lead isotopes analysis technology in fine particles. Environmental Protection Administration, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
- Despres VR, Huffman JA, Burrows SM, Hoose C, Safatov AS, Buryak G, Frohlich-Nowoisky J, Elbert W, Andreae MO, Poschl U, Jaenicke R (2012) Primary biological aerosol particles in the atmosphere: a review. Tellus B 64. https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.15598
- Healy DA, Huffman JA, O'Connor DJ, Pohlker C, Poschl U, Sodeau JR (2014) Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques. Atmos Chem Phys 14:8055–8069. https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-14-3875-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hsu S-C, Liu SC, Jeng W-L, Chou CC, Hsu R-T, Huang Y-T, Chen Y-W (2006) Lead isotope ratios in ambient aerosols from Taipei, Taiwan: identifying long-range transport of airborne Pb from the Yangtze Delta. Atmos Environ 40:5393–5404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang T-C (1972) Pollen flora of Taiwan. Botany Dept. PressGoogle Scholar
- Jung J, Kawamura K (2011) Springtime carbon emission episodes at the Gosan background site revealed by total carbon, stable carbon isotopic composition, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous particles. Atmos Chem Phys 11:10911–10928. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-10911-2011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mkoma SL, Kawamura K, Tachibana E, Fu PQ (2014) Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of tropical atmospheric aerosols: sources and contribution from burning of C-3 and C-4 plants to organic aerosols. Tellus B 66. https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.20176
- Pope FD (2010) Pollen grains are efficient cloud condensation nuclei. Environ Res Lett 5. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/5/4/044015
- Skrzypek G, Baranowska-Kacka A, Keller-Sikora A, Jedrysek MO (2009) Analogous trends in pollen percentages and carbon stable isotope composition of Holocene peat - possible interpretation for palaeoclimate studies. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 156:507–518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turner N, Jones M, Grice K, Dawson D, Ioppolo-Armanios M, Fisher SJ (2006) Delta C-13 of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in airborne samples by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-IR-MS). Atmos Environ 40:3381–3388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.01.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar