Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 26, pp 26972–26981 | Cite as

Biodegradation of diuron by endophytic Bacillus licheniformis strain SDS12 and its application in reducing diuron toxicity for green algae

  • Anil Kumar SinghEmail author
  • Poonam Singla
Research Article


The endophytic bacteria live in close nuptial relationship with the host plant. The stress experienced by the plant is expected to be transferred to the endophytes. Thus, plants thriving at polluted sites are likely to harbor pollutant-degrading endophytes. The present study reports the isolation of phenylurea herbicides assimilating Bacillus sps. from Parthenium weed growing at diuron-contaminated site. The isolated endophytes exhibited plant growth–promoting (PGP) activities. Among five isolated diuron-degrading endophytes, the most efficient isolate Bacillus licheniformis strain SDS12 degraded 85.60 ± 1.36% of 50 ppm diuron to benign form via formation of degradation intermediate 3, 4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). Cell-free supernatant (CFS) obtained after diuron degradation by strain SDS12 supported algal growth comparable with the pond water. The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency of green algae decreased significantly in the presence of diuron-contaminated water; however, no such change was observed in CFS of strain SDS12, thus, suggesting that strain SDS12 can be applied in aquatic bodies for degrading diuron and reducing diuron toxicity for primary producers. Further, the use of PGP and diuron-degrading bacteria in agriculture fields will not only help in remediating the soil but also support plant growth.


PGP activities Algae Chlorophyll Diuron toxicity 



The authors are thankful to Nangia Nanolab Pvt Ltd., Bhopal, India, and Director, IMTECH, Chandigarh, for providing the sophisticated instrumentation facilities. The authors also thank SBBSU for providing facilities for this work and financial support.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5922_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (833 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1: Growth of endophytes in different phenylurea herbicides namely linuron, fenuron, and monolinuron. Growth was carried out at 30 °C with agitation of 150 rpm for 4 days. Values given are mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Inset: scanning electron micrograph of Bacillus licheniformis strain SDS12 (PPTX 833 kb)
11356_2019_5922_MOESM2_ESM.pptx (63 kb)
Supplementary Table 1: Plant growth–promoting attributes of endophytes isolated from Parthenium (PPTX 62 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanySant Baba Bhag Singh UniversityKhialaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Centre for Advance Studies in ChemistryPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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