Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 26, pp 26925–26938 | Cite as

Elemental characterization of general aviation aircraft emissions using moss bags

  • Enis T. TurgutEmail author
  • Eftade O. Gaga
  • Gordana Jovanović
  • Mustafa Odabasi
  • Gulzade Artun
  • Akif Ari
  • Mira Aničić Urošević
Research Article


In light of growing concern and insufficient knowledge on the negative impact of aircraft emissions on environmental health, this study strives to investigate the air burden of major and trace elements caused by general aviation, piston-engine, and turboprop aircraft, within the vicinity of Eskisehir Hasan Polatkan Airport (Eskisehir, Turkey). The levels of 57 elements were investigated, based on moss bag biomonitoring using Sphagnum sp., along with chemical analyses of lubrication oil and aviation gasoline fuel used in the aircraft’s operations. Five sampling sites were selected within the vicinity of the airport area to capture spatial changes in the concentration of airborne elements. The study demonstrates that moss bag biomonitoring is a useful tool in the identification of differences in the air burden by major and trace elements that have concentrated downwind of the aircraft emission sources. Moreover, pollutant enrichment in the Sphagnum moss bags and elemental characterization of oil/fuel are in agreement suggesting that Pb, followed by Cd, Cu, Mo, Cr, Ni, Fe, Si, Zn, Na, P, Ca, Mg, and Al are dominant elements that shaped the general aviation aircraft emissions.


General aviation Piston-engine aircraft AVGAS fuel moss bag lead emission trace elements 



Anadolu University and Eskisehir Technical University are acknowledged for their support of the current study. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Melik Kara (Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey) for the analysis of oil and fuel samples and Pelin ERTÜRK ARI (Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey) for the digestion of the moss samples. We would also like to thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive and insightful comments.

Funding statement

The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Project No. III43007).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5910_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.7 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 3.66 MB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aircraft Airframe and Powerplant DepartmentEskisehir Technical UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Environmental EngineeringEskisehir Technical UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  3. 3.Institute of Physics Belgrade, a National Institute of the Republic of SerbiaUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  4. 4.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental EngineeringDokuz Eylul UniversityIzmirTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Engineering, Gölköy CampusBolu Abant İzzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey

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