Exploratory of immobilization remediation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) on lead-contaminated soils

  • Yifan Wang
  • Ruizhen Li
  • Wenzhu Liu
  • Li Cheng
  • Qun Jiang
  • Ying ZhangEmail author
Research Article


This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption and fixation effects of hydroxyapatite (HAP) on lead-contaminated soil. According to the experimental results, the microstructure of hydroxyapatite was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that OH and PO43− were the main functional groups in HAP. Optimum adsorption conditions of Pb2+ were obtained: 0.2 g/L, adsorbent; initial solution pH of 5.5; and contact time of 120 min. The kinetic adsorption experiments were carried out with the initial lead solution concentrations of 50 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 250 mg/L. The kinetics fitting was consistent with the pseudo-second-kinetic model, which indicated that the main process of HAP adsorption of Pb2+ was mainly controlled by surface reactions and chemical reactions. The adsorption isotherms had a satisfactory fit with the Langmuir model, which indicated that the adsorption of Pb2+ by HAP was a monolayer adsorption. According to the experimental results, ion exchange, phosphorus supply, precipitate, and complexation are the main immobilization mechanisms for soil remediation with HAP. In remediation of Pb2+-contaminated soil experiments, the adsorption rate of Pb2+ by HAP was significantly higher than that of non-HAP soil with increasing immobilization days. With the increasing addition of HAP, the weak acid soluble (WA), reducible (RED), oxidizable (OX), and water soluble (WS) are transformed into residue (RES). The application of HAP in contaminated soil effectively reduced the leachable and exchangeable Pb2+, indicating that HAP is a potential material for remediating environmental pollution with Pb2+.


Lead (Pb2+Adsorption Hydroxyapatite (HAP) Soil remediation 


Funding information

This research was financially supported by the Plan for Training Talents with Special Funds for the Development of Local Colleges and Universities by Central Finance, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41877128), the National Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (41625002), the Second Batch of National “10,000 Person Plan” in 2016, the MOA Modern Agricultural Talents Support Project, and the Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Protection and Remediation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yifan Wang
    • 1
  • Ruizhen Li
    • 1
  • Wenzhu Liu
    • 1
  • Li Cheng
    • 1
  • Qun Jiang
    • 1
  • Ying Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Resources and EnvironmentNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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