Photocatalytic removal of trichloroethylene from water with LaFeO3

  • Yen-Chen Hsu
  • Shu-Hao Chang
  • Wei-Chieh Chung
  • Moo-Been ChangEmail author
Research Article


Tricholorethylene (TCE) has been recognized as second common organic pollutant found in groundwater in Taiwan. Several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been applied for TCE removal and photocatalytic is one of promising AOP techniques. In this study, LaFeO3 is successfully synthesized via sol-gel method and investigated for its photocatalytic oxidation rate toward TCE in water. Experimental results indicate that 95% removal efficiency of TCE can be achieved in aqueous solution with LaFeO3 (2 g/L) as photocatalyst within 1 h of Xenon lamp illumination. Additionally, the influences of initial TCE concentration, light intensity, photocatalyst loading, and pH value on the TCE removal efficiency are evaluated as well. The highest energy efficiency obtained in this study is 10.8 mg TCE/kWh and the value is higher than those reported in previous studies. Besides, removal mechanisms have been identified and the results indicate that the overall removal efficiency reaches 82%, with adsorption and photolysis accounting for 20% and 39%, respectively.


Perovskite Photocatalytic oxidation Trichloroethylene Aqueous phase 


Funding information

This study was funded by the research project supported by the Taiwan EPA. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the writers and should not be presented as opinions of the Taiwan EPA. Mention of trade names, vendor names, or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by Taiwan EPA.


  1. Abazari R, Sanati S (2013) Perovskite LaFeO3 nanoparticles synthesized by the reverse microemulsion nanoreactors in the presence of aerosol-OT: morphology, crystal structure, and their optical properties. Superlattices Microstruct 64:148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. An JJ, Zhu LH, Zhang YY, Tang HQ (2013) Efficient visible light photo-fenton-like degradation of prganic pollutants using in situ surface-modified BiFeO3 as a catalyst. J Environ Sci 25:1213–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson MA (2000) Removal of MTBE and other organic contaminants from water by sorption to high silica zeolites. Environ Sci Technol 34:725–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bak SA, Song MS, Nam IT, Lee WG (2015) Photocatalytic ooxidation of trichloroethylene in water using a porous ball of nano-ZnO and nanoclay composite. J Nanomater 2015:160212Google Scholar
  5. Bhosale RR, Pujari SR, Muley GG, Patil SH, Patil KR, Shaikh MF, Gambhire AB (2014) Solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar Energy 103:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen F, Zou W, Qu W, Zhang J (2009) Photocatalytic performance of a visible light TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by a surface chemical modification process. Catal Communi 10:1510–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chong MN, Jin B, Chow CWK, Saint C (2010) Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: a review. Water Res 44:2997–3027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dobaradaran S, Lutze H, Mahvi AH, Schmidt TC (2014) Transformation efficiency and formation of transformation products during photochemical degradation of TCE and PCE at micromolar concentrations. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 12:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farooq M, Raja IA, Pervez A (2009) Photocatalytic degradation of TCE in water using TiO2 catalyst. Solar Energy 83:1527–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hager S, Bauer R, Kudielka G (2000) Photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous chlorinated organics over titanium dioxide. Chemosphere 41:1219–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hennig H, Billing R (1993) Advantages and disadvantages of photocatalysis induced by light-sensitive cordination compounds. Coordi Chem Rev 125:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hu R, Li C, Wang X, Sun Y, Jia H, Su H, Zhang Y (2012) Photocatalytic activities of LaFeO3 and La2FeTiO6 in p-chlorophenol degradation under visible light. Catal Communi 29:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iervolino G, Vaiano V, Sannino D, Rizzo L, Ciambelli P (2016) Production of hydrogen from glucose by LaFeO3 based photocatalytic process during water teatment. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41:959–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jang DG, Ahn CH, Choi JS, Kim JH, Kim JK, Joo JC (2016) Enhanced removal of trichloroethylene in water using nano-ZnO/polybutadiene rubber composites. Catalysts 6:152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Joo JC, Ahn CH, Jang DG, Yoon YH, Kim JK, Campos L, Ahn H (2013) Photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene in aqueous phase using nano-ZNO/Laponite composites. J Hazard Mater 263:569–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kanakaraju D, Ravichandar S, Lim YC (2017) Combined effects of adsorption and photocatalysis by hybrid TiO2/ZnO-calcium alginate beads for the removal of copper. J. Environ. Sci. 55:214–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kashif N, Ouyang F (2009) Parameters effect on heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of phenol in aqueous dispersion of TiO2. J. Environ. Sci. 21:527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaur T, Sraw A, Toor AP, Wanchoo RK (2016) Utilization of solar energy for the degradation of carbendazim and propiconazole by Fe doped TiO2. Solar Energy 125:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar RD, Thangappan R, Jayavel R (2017) Synthesis and characterization of LaFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites for visible light photocatalytic activity. J Phys Chem Solids 101:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li L, Quinlivan PA, Knappe DRU (2002) Effects of activated carbon surface chemistry and pore structure on the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution. Carbon 40:2085–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li S, Jing L, Fu W, Yang L, Xin B, Fu H (2007) Photoinduced charge property of nanosized perovskite-type LaFeO3 and its relationships with photocatalytic activity under visible orradiation. Mater Res Bullet 42:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mohseni M (2005) Gas phase trichloroethylene (TCE) photooxidation and byproduct formation: photolysis vs. titania/silica based photocatalysis. Chemosphere 59:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Natarajan S, Bajaj HC, Tayade RJ (2018) Recent advances based on the synergetic effect of adsorption for removal of dyes from waste water using photocatalytic process. J. Environ. Sci. 65:201–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Niu J, Yin L, Dai Y, Bao Y, Crittenden JC (2016) Design of visible light rresponsive photocatalysts for selective reduction of chlorinated organic compounds in water. Appl Catal A Gen 521:90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nur A, Rosari S (2016) Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of perovskite LaFeO3 nanoparticles. J Phys Conf Ser 710:012030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oturan MA, Aaron JJ (2012) Advanced oxidation processes in water/wastewater treatment: principles and applications. A review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 44:2577–2641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peng K, Fu L, Yang H, Ouyang J (2016) Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites: synthesis, interface characteristics and enhanced photocatalytic activity. Sci Rep 6:19723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Petrisor IG, Wells JT (2008) Tracking chlorinated solvents in the environment. In: Hester RE, Harrison RM (eds) Environmental forensics. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 130–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qu JH (2008) Research progress of novel adsorption processes in water purification: a review. J Environ Sci 20:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rabideau AJ, Blayden JM, Ganguly C (1999) Field performance of air sparging system for removing TCE from groundwater. Environ Sci Technol 33:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ren X, Yang HT, Gen S, Zhou J, Yang TZ, Zhang XP, Cheng ZH, Sun SH (2016) Controlled growth of LaFeO3 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for highly efficient photocatalysis. Nanoscale 8:752–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rusevova K, Köferstein R, Rosell M, Richnow HH, Kopinke FD, Georgi A (2014) LaFeO3 and BiFeO3 perovskites as nanocatalysts for contaminant degradation in heterogeneous fenton-like reactions. Chem Eng J 239:322–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schroth MH, Oostrom M, Wietsma TW, Istok JD (2001) In-situ oxidation of trichloroethene by permanganate: effects on porous medium hydraulic properties. J Contam Hydrol 50:79–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shahbazi M, Wang HX (2016) Progress in research on the stability of organometal perovskite solar cells. Solar Energy 123:74–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shen H, Tong X, Wang YM, Cao GZ, Lu YJ, Fang GL (2016) Photocatalytic property of perovskite LaFeO3 synthesized by sol-gel process and vacuum microwave calcination. Mater. Res. Bullet. 84:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. State R, Papa F, Tabakova T, Atkinson I, Negrila C, Balint I (2017) Photocatalytic abatement of trichloroethyleneover Au and Pd-Au supported on TiO2 by combined photomineralization/hydrodechlorination reactions under simulated solar irradiation. J. Catal. 346:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suty H, de Traversay C, Cost M (2004) Applications of advanced oxidation processes: present and future. Water Sci Technol 49:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taiwan EPA (2017) Soil and Groundwater Remediation Fund. Taiwan EPA, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  39. Thirumalairajan S, Girija K, Ganesh I, Mangalaraj D, Viswanathan C, Balamurugan A, Ponpandian N (2012) Controlled synthesis of perovskite LaFeO3 microsphere composed of nanoparticles via self-assembly process and their associated photocatalytic activity. Chem Eng J 209:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tsai WT (2016) Toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmospheric environment: regulatory aspects and monitoring in Japan and Korea. Environments 3:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang JL, Xu LJ (2012) Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment: formation of hydroxyl radical and application. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 42:251–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Xiao Q, Zhang J, Xiao C, Si Z, Tan X (2008) Solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in carbon-doped TiO2 nanoparticles suspension. Solar Energy 82:706–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang L, Yu LE, Ray MB (2008) Degradation of paracetamol in aqueous solutions by TiO2 photocatalysis. Water Res 42:3480–3488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yu Y, Chen G, Zhou Y, Han Z (2015) Recent advances in rare-earth elements modification of Inorganic semiconductor-based photocatalysts for efficient solar energy conversion: a review. J Rare Earths 33:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang JW, Fu DF, Xu YD, Liu CY (2010) Optimization of parameters on photocatalytic degradation of chloramphenicol using TiO2 as photocatalyist by response surface methodology. J Environ Sci 22:1281–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang Y, Park M, Kim HY, Ding B, Park SJ (2016) In-situ synthesis of nanofibers with various ratios of BiOClx/BiOBry/BiOIz for effective trichloroethylene photocatalytic degradation. Appl Surf Sci 384:192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhu J, Li H, Zhong L, Xiao P, Xu X, Yang X, Zhao Z, Li J (2014) Perovskite oxides: preparation, characterizations, and applications in heterogeneous catalysis. ACS Catal 4:2917–2940CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yen-Chen Hsu
    • 1
  • Shu-Hao Chang
    • 1
  • Wei-Chieh Chung
    • 1
  • Moo-Been Chang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Environmental EngineeringNational Central UniversityTaoyuan CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations