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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 26, pp 27100–27111 | Cite as

Studies on the use of sodium polyacrylate (SPA) for low-salt animal skin preservation

  • Venkatakrishnan Balasubramanian
  • Brindha Velappan
  • Sandhya Kurvilla Vijayan
  • Hepzibah Jabamani
  • Vedaraman NagarajanEmail author
  • John Sundar Victor
  • Suresha P. Ranganath
  • Manohar V. Badiger
  • Velappan Kandukalpatti Chinnaraj
  • Muralidharan Chellappa
Research Article
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

Salt-based preservation is practiced for decades in the leather industry because of its versatility, cost-effectiveness, and availability. The salt removed from the soaking process causes significant pollution including organic and elevated total dissolved solids (TDS). Hence, a low-salt skin preservation method using commercial sodium polyacrylate with a reduced quantity of sodium chloride aiming to retain leather properties and pollution reduction was the principal focus of the study. Commercial sodium polyacrylate initially characterized for water absorption capacity along with structural and functional properties is confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques. In preliminary experiments, the process parameters attained optimized conditions of sodium polyacrylate (SPA) quantity (5%), a minimal amount of salt (15%), and contact time (4 h) required for skin preservation. Besides, reusability studies after SPA recovery (95%) were applied to skins with an optimized quantity of SPA and salt subsequently stored for 15 days along with control (40% salt). The results revealed that SPA with low salt aided an adequate curing efficiency with a substantial reduction (> 65%) of TDS and comparable physical and organoleptic properties on par with the conventional method. Overall, SPA supported low-salt skin preservation reduces pollutant load (TDS) caused due to using of 40% sodium chloride in the conventional curing process.

Keywords

Pollution reduction Preservation Raw skin Sodium polyacrylate TDS reduction 

Notes

Funding information

This research was funded by CSIR-CLRI under the Mission Mode Project-CLRI/MMP-02/18

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5871_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 16 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkatakrishnan Balasubramanian
    • 1
  • Brindha Velappan
    • 1
  • Sandhya Kurvilla Vijayan
    • 1
  • Hepzibah Jabamani
    • 1
  • Vedaraman Nagarajan
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Sundar Victor
    • 2
  • Suresha P. Ranganath
    • 3
  • Manohar V. Badiger
    • 3
  • Velappan Kandukalpatti Chinnaraj
    • 1
  • Muralidharan Chellappa
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentCSIR-Central Leather Research InstituteChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Leather Processing DivisionCSIR-Central Leather Research InstituteChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Polymer Science and Engineering DivisionCSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryPuneIndia

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