Advertisement

Tailored high mesoporous activated carbons derived from Lotus seed shell using one-step ZnCl2-activated method with its high Pb(II) capturing capacity

  • Xianling Huang
  • Yang HuangEmail author
  • Zhong PanEmail author
  • Wentian Xu
  • Weihua Zhang
  • Xin Zhang
Research Article
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Lotus seed shell was employed using one-step method combining carbonization with ZnCl2 activation to synthesize activated carbons because of its inexpensiveness and local accessibility. The lotus seed shell–activated carbons (LSSACs) with the highest surface area (2450.8 m2/g) and mesoporosity (98.6%) and the largest pore volume (1.514 cm3/g) were tailored under optimum conditions as follows: impregnation ratio = 2:1, carbonization temperature = 600 °C, and time = 1.0 h. The surface Zn(II), abundant hydroxyl, and carboxyl functional groups from the activation process could result in rapid Pb(II) adsorption onto the LSSAC surface through surface complexation, ion exchange, or precipitation. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qm) for Pb(II) of 247.7 mg/g at 25 °C could be fitted from the Langmuir isotherm. The Gibbs free energy (△G) and positive enthalpy (△H) indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and to some extent, it was explained by the intra-particle diffusion mechanism. Our results may provide a promising way to produce activated carbons with high adsorption capacity using solid waste, which will eventually promote the environmental sustainability.

Keywords

Lead Activated carbon Lotus seed shell Mesoporous One step tailoring 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21175115) and the Fujian Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2018J01437).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5845_MOESM1_ESM.docx (285 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 284 kb)

References

  1. Acharya J, Sahu JN, Mohanty CR, Meikap BC (2009) Removal of lead(II) from wastewater by activated carbon developed from tamarind wood by zinc chloride activation. Chem Eng J 149:249–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2008.10.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azizian S (2004) Kinetic models of sorption: a theoretical analysis. J Colloid Interface Sci 276:47–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.03.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boudrahem F, Aissani-Benissad F, Ait-Amar H (2009) Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride. J Environ Manag 90:3031–3039.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braghiroli FL, Bouafif H, Hamza N, Bouslimi B, Neculita CM, Koubaa A (2018) The influence of pilot-scale pyro-gasification and activation conditions on porosity development in activated biochars. Biomass Bioenergy 118:105–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.08.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burakov AE, Galunin EV, Burakova IV, Kucherova AE, Agarwal S, Tkachev AG, Gupta VK (2018) Adsorption of heavy metals on conventional and nanostructured materials for wastewater treatment purposes: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 148:702–712.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.11.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang B, Guan D, Tian Y, Yang Z, Dong X (2013) Convenient synthesis of porous carbon nanospheres with tunable pore structure and excellent adsorption capacity. J Hazard Mater 262:256–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.08.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang B, Guo Y, Li Y, Yang B (2015) Hierarchical porous carbon derived from recycled waste filter paper as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. RSC Adv 5:72019–72027.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra12651g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang B, Shi W, Yin H, Zhang S, Yang B (2019) Poplar catkin-derived self-templated synthesis of N-doped hierarchical porous carbon microtubes for effective CO2 capture. Chem Eng J 358:1507–1518.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.10.142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng J-Y, Yang L, Dong L, Long X-L, Yuan W-K (2012) Regeneration of hexamminecobalt(II) under the catalysis of activated carbon modified with ZnCl2 solution. J Ind Eng Chem 18:1628–1634.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.02.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Paula FGF, de Castro MCM, Ortega PFR, Blanco C, Lavall RL, Santamaría R (2018) High value activated carbons from waste polystyrene foams. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 267:181–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2018.03.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dehkhoda AM, Gyenge E, Ellis N (2016) A novel method to tailor the porous structure of KOH-activated biochar and its application in capacitive deionization and energy storage. Biomass Bioenergy 87:107–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.02.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Depci T, Kul AR, Önal Y (2012) Competitive adsorption of lead and zinc from aqueous solution on activated carbon prepared from Van apple pulp: study in single- and multi-solute systems. Chem Eng J 200-202:224–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El-Hendawy A-NA (2009) An insight into the KOH activation mechanism through the production of microporous activated carbon for the removal of Pb2+ cations. Appl Surf Sci 255:3723–3730.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.10.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gupta VK, Ganjali MR, Nayak A, Bhushan B, Agarwal S (2012) Enhanced heavy metals removal and recovery by mesoporous adsorbent prepared from waste rubber tire. Chem Eng J 197:330–342.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.04.104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang Y, Li S, Chen J, Zhang X, Chen Y (2014) Adsorption of Pb(II) on mesoporous activated carbons fabricated from water hyacinth using H3PO4 activation: adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies. Appl Surf Sci 293:160–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.12.123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Islam MA, Ahmed MJ, Khanday WA, Asif M, Hameed BH (2017) Mesoporous activated carbon prepared from NaOH activation of rattan (Lacosperma secundiflorum) hydrochar for methylene blue removal. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 138:279–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jain A, Xu C, Jayaraman S, Balasubramanian R, Lee JY, Srinivasan MP (2015) Mesoporous activated carbons with enhanced porosity by optimal hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass for supercapacitor applications. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 218:55–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2015.06.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kong J, Yue Q, Sun S, Gao B, Kan Y, Li Q, Wang Y (2014) Adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using keratin waste – hide waste: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies. Chem Eng J 241:393–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.10.070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar A, Mohan Jena H (2015) High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation. Appl Surf Sci 356:753–761.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.08.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li SS, Jiang M, Jiang TJ, Liu JH, Guo Z, Huang XJ (2017) Competitive adsorption behavior toward metal ions on nano-Fe/Mg/Ni ternary layered double hydroxide proved by XPS: evidence of selective and sensitive detection of Pb(II). J Hazard Mater 338:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.05.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu H, Dai P, Zhang J, Zhang C, Bao N, Cheng C, Ren L (2013) Preparation and evaluation of activated carbons from lotus stalk with trimethyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate activation for lead removal. Chem Eng J 228:425–434.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.04.117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu B, Zhou X, Chen H, Liu Y, Li H (2016a) Promising porous carbons derived from lotus seedpods with outstanding supercapacitance performance. Electrochim Acta 208:55–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.05.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu Y, Wang Y, Zhang G, Liu W, Wang D, Dong Y (2016b) Preparation of activated carbon from willow leaves and evaluation in electric double-layer capacitors. Mater Lett 176:60–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2016.04.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mohammadi SZ, Hamidian H, Moeinadini Z (2014) High surface area-activated carbon from Glycyrrhiza glabra residue by ZnCl2 activation for removal of Pb(II) and Ni(II) from water samples. J Ind Eng Chem 20:4112–4118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nabais JMV, Laginhas C, Carrott MMLR, Carrott PJM, Amorós JEC, Gisbert AVN (2013) Surface and porous characterisation of activated carbons made from a novel biomass precursor, the esparto grass. Appl Surf Sci 265:919–924.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.11.164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Namasivayam C, Sangeetha D (2005) Kinetic studies of adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Chemosphere 60:1616–1623.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pap S, Radonic J, Trifunovic S, Adamovic D, Mihajlovic I, Vojinovic Miloradov M, Turk Sekulic M (2016) Evaluation of the adsorption potential of eco-friendly activated carbon prepared from cherry kernels for the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous wastes. J Environ Manag 184:297–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pap S, Šolević Knudsen T, Radonić J, Maletić S, Igić SM, Turk Sekulić M (2017) Utilization of fruit processing industry waste as green activated carbon for the treatment of heavy metals and chlorophenols contaminated water. J Clean Prod 162:958–972.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perez-Marin AB, Zapata VM, Ortuno JF, Aguilar M, Saez J, Llorens M (2007) Removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto orange waste. J Hazard Mater 139:122–131.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pezoti O, Cazetta AL, Souza IPAF, Bedin KC, Martins AC, Silva TL, Almeida VC (2014) Adsorption studies of methylene blue onto ZnCl2-activated carbon produced from buriti shells (Mauritia flexuosa L.). J Ind Eng Chem 20:4401–4407.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rosas JM, Ruiz-Rosas R, Rodríguez-Mirasol J, Cordero T (2017) Kinetic study of SO2 removal over lignin-based activated carbon. Chem Eng J 307:707–721.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.08.111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saeed A, Iqbal M, Akhtar MW (2005) Removal and recovery of lead(II) from single and multimetal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) solutions by crop milling waste (black gram husk). J Hazard Mater 117:65–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saka C (2012) BET, TG–DTG, FT-IR, SEM, iodine number analysis and preparation of activated carbon from acorn shell by chemical activation with ZnCl2. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 95:21–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2011.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sayğılı H, Güzel F (2016) High surface area mesoporous activated carbon from tomato processing solid waste by zinc chloride activation: process optimization, characterization and dyes adsorption. J Clean Prod 113:995–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Selmi T, Sanchez-Sanchez A, Gadonneix P, Jagiello J, Seffen M, Sammouda H, Celzard A, Fierro V (2018) Tetracycline removal with activated carbons produced by hydrothermal carbonisation of Agave americana fibres and mimosa tannin. Ind Crop Prod 115:146–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tang Y, Chen L, Wei X, Yao Q, Li T (2013) Removal of lead ions from aqueous solution by the dried aquatic plant, Lemna perpusilla Torr. J Hazard Mater 244:603–612.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.10.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tang J, Li Y, Wang X, Daroch M (2017a) Effective adsorption of aqueous Pb2+ by dried biomass of Landoltia punctata and Spirodela polyrhiza. J Clean Prod 145:25–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tang J, Mu B, Zong L, Zheng M, Wang A (2017b) Facile and green fabrication of magnetically recyclable carboxyl-functionalized attapulgite/carbon nanocomposites derived from spent bleaching earth for wastewater treatment. Chem Eng J 322:102–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.03.116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tauetsile PJ, Oraby EA, Eksteen JJ (2019) Activated carbon adsorption of gold from cyanide-starved glycine solutions containing copper. Part 1: isotherms. Sep Purif Technol 211:594–601.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2018.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tonucci MC, Gurgel LVA, Aquino SFD (2015) Activated carbons from agricultural byproducts (pine tree and coconut shell), coal, and carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for removal of sulfamethoxazole from spiked aqueous solutions: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Ind Crop Prod 74:111–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uçar S, Erdem M, Tay T, Karagöz S (2009) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl2 activation. Appl Surf Sci 255:8890–8896.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.06.080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Üner O, Bayrak Y (2018) The effect of carbonization temperature, carbonization time and impregnation ratio on the properties of activated carbon produced from Arundo donax. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 268:225–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2018.04.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wahi R, NFQa Z, Yusof Y, Jamel J, Kanakaraju D, Ngaini Z (2017) Chemically treated microwave-derived biochar: an overview. Biomass Bioenergy 107:411–421.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang X, Wang M, Zhang X, Li H, Guo X (2016) Low-cost, green synthesis of highly porous carbons derived from lotus root shell as superior performance electrode materials in supercapacitor. J Energy Chem 25:26–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jechem.2015.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yang W, Tang Q, Wei J, Ran Y, Chai L, Wang H (2016) Enhanced removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by composites of mesoporous carbon stabilized alumina. Appl Surf Sci 369:215–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.01.151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yue Z, Wang J, Economy J (2013) Pore control of ZnCl2-activated cellulose on fiberglass mats for removal of humic acid from water. Mater Lett 90:8–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2012.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang J, Li L, Li Y, Yang C (2017) Microwave-assisted synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous nano-TiO2/cellulose composites for rapid adsorption of Pb2+. Chem Eng J 313:1132–1141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhou N, Chen H, Feng Q, Yao D, Chen H, Wang H, Zhou Z, Li H, Tian Y, Lu X (2017a) Effect of phosphoric acid on the surface properties and Pb(II) adsorption mechanisms of hydrochars prepared from fresh banana peels. J Clean Prod 165:221–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.07.111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhou N, Chen H, Xi J, Yao D, Zhou Z, Tian Y, Lu X (2017b) Biochars with excellent Pb(II) adsorption property produced from fresh and dehydrated banana peels via hydrothermal carbonization. Bioresour Technol 232:204–210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.01.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhou Y, Liu X, Tang L, Zhang F, Zeng G, Peng X, Luo L, Deng Y, Pang Y, Zhang J (2017c) Insight into highly efficient co-removal of p-nitrophenol and lead by nitrogen-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon: performance and modelling. J Hazard Mater 333:80–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.03.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhu X, Gao Y, Yue Q, Kan Y, Kong W, Gao B (2017) Preparation of green alga-based activated carbon with lower impregnation ratio and less activation time by potassium tartrate for adsorption of chloramphenicol. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 145:289–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.07.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science, Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology & Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Pollution Monitoring and ControlMinnan Normal UniversityZhangzhouChina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Monitoring Technology, Third Institute of OceanographyMinistry of Natural ResourcesXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations