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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 26, pp 27225–27238 | Cite as

Evaluation of conventional drinking water treatment plant efficiency according to water quality index and health risk assessment

  • Alper AlverEmail author
Research Article
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this research is to investigate the effluent water quality of a treatment plant in Turkey fed from surface and groundwater, according to water quality index (WOI) and health risk assessment (HRA). In order to achieve this goal, the quality of the influent and effluent water of the treatment plant was monitored monthly from January 2017 to January 2019. Water quality parameter results were compared with the Turkish drinking water standards and the World Health Organization (WHO), revealing that all parameters were within approved limits. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the water quality parameter impacts in the overall quality of water and the most attractive parameters were trace elements, heavy metals, NH3-N, NO3, and TKN. To evaluate water quality and the impacts on human health, WQI and HRA, including hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI), were used. The WQI values were calculated by taking into account PCA results. WQI results demonstrated that the influent and effluent of water treatment plant values have a small number of WQI ranking that expressed the water category was “excellent” for drinking purpose. Finally, metal contamination in influent and effluent waters was assessed and the associated health risks to rural populations were estimated for different age groups, children and adults in the service area of the treatment plant. The health risk assessment with similar to WQI results, the acute, sub-chronic, and chronic risks of trace elements was “negligible” level, i.e., to a level affecting 1 person in 1,000,000 inhabitants.

Keywords

Drinking water Treatment plant Principal component analysis Water quality index Health risk assessment Non-carcinogens 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Selçuk VAROL for advice, comments, and help in other ways during this paper.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering FacultyAksaray UniversityAksarayTurkey

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