Natural and non-toxic products from Fabaceae Brazilian plants as a replacement for traditional antifouling biocides: an inhibition potential against initial biofouling
In this study, we screened for the antifouling activity of 15 species plant extracts from Brazilian the Brazilian Caatinga Fabaceae against the initial colonization of natural marine bacterial biofilm. We also investigated the potential toxicity of extracts against planktonic and benthic non-target organisms. Aqueous extracts of plants collected in the Caatinga biome (PE, Brazil) were prepared and tested at different concentration levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg mL−1). Natural marine bacterial consortium was inoculated in multi-well plates and incubated with the different treatments for 48 h. The biofilm and planktonic bacterial density and biomass inhibition were evaluated along with biofilm biomass eradication. The extracts that showed the highest bacterial biofilm inhibition were evaluated for toxicity against microalgae and crustaceans. The biofilm and planktonic bacterial inhibition potential were evaluated through flow cytometry and spectrophotometry. The selected treatments were evaluated for their toxicity using the microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans, the copepod Nitokra sp., and the brine shrimp Artemia salina as bioindicators. Our work demonstrates the biotechnological potential of Fabaceae plant compounds as a safe antifouling alternative. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil fruits and Apuleia leiocarpa leaf extracts showed antibiofilm activity (≥ 80%), while Myroxylon peruiferum and Dioclea grandiflora leaf extracts showed antibiotic activity. These extracts were safe to planktonic and benthic non-target organisms. The results of this study point to potential substitutes to highly toxic antifouling paints and shed light on the prospect of a yet to be explored biome for more sustainable alternatives in biofouling research.
KeywordsAquatic environment, biotechnology Biofilm Caatinga biome Pelagic-benthic coupling
The authors acknowledge the support of Universidade Federal of Rio Grande (FURG), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Centro de Microscopia Eletrônica do Sul (CEME-SUL), and PNPD-CAPES scholarship.
This work was supported by the PRONEM FAPERGS/CNPq (16/2551-000244-4).
Compliance with ethical standards
National ethical statement
The present research is in accordance with Brazilian legislation for the use of genetic patrimony and tradition-associated knowledge, under the record numbers: SisGen A08E18B and SisGen A50301E.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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