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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 26, pp 27148–27167 | Cite as

Ginkgo biloba attenuates aluminum lactate-induced neurotoxicity in reproductive senescent female rats: behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological study

  • Sonia Verma
  • Pavitra Ranawat
  • Neha Sharma
  • Bimla NehruEmail author
Research Article
  • 97 Downloads

Abstract

Extensive use of aluminum (Al) in industry, cooking utensils, and wrapping or freezing the food items, due to its cheapness and abundance in the environment, has become a major concern. Growing evidence supports that environmental pollutant Al promotes the aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain, which is the main pathological marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Further, AD- and Al-induced neurotoxic effects are more common among women following reproductive senescence due to decline in estrogen. Though clinically Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been exploited as a memory enhancer, its role in Al-induced neurotoxicity in reproductive senescent female rats needs to be evaluated. Animals were exposed to intraperitoneal dose (10 mg/kg b.wt) of Al and oral dose (100 mg/kg b.wt.) of GBE daily for 6 weeks. A significant decline in the Al-induced Aβ aggregates was observed in hippocampal and cortical regions of the brain with GBE supplementation, as confirmed by thioflavin (ThT) and Congo red staining. GBE administration significantly decreased the reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and citrulline levels in comparison to Al-treated rats. On the contrary, a significant increase in the reduced glutathione, GSH/GSSG ratio as well as in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed with GBE administration. Based on the above results, GBE prevented the neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex, hence caused significant improvement in the learning and memory of the animals in terms of AChE activity, serotonin levels, Morris water maze, and active and passive avoidance tests. In conclusion, GBE has alleviated the behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations due to Al toxicity in rats. However, molecular studies are going on to better understand the mechanism of GBE protection against the environmental toxicant Al exposure.

Graphical abstract

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Keywords

Aluminum Oxidative stress Reproductive senescence Aβ aggregation Memory loss Ginkgo biloba extract 

Abbreviations

Al

Aluminum

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

DCF

2′7′-Dichlorofluorescceine

MDA

Malondialdehyde

AChE

Acetylcholinesterase

MWM

Morris Water Maze

EPM

Elevated Plus Maze

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GST

Glutathione s-transferase

GBE

Ginkgo biloba extract

Notes

Acknowledgements

The University Research fellowship (1241/Estt-I, dated 7/2/2013) to Ms. Sonia Verma is highly appreciated.

Compliance with ethical standards

All the protocols performed were approved (PU/45/99/CPCSEA/IAEC/2018/153) by the Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC) (NIH publications; Rule No. 23-85, as revised in 1985) of Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biophysics, South CampusPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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