Use of alternating current for colored water purification by anodic oxidation with SS/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes

  • Amina OthmaniEmail author
  • Aida Kesraoui
  • Hanene Akrout
  • Montserrat López-Mesas
  • Mongi Seffen
  • Manuel Valiente
Research Article


This paper suggests a new alternative for the acceleration of dye removal by adopting alternating current instead of direct current in the treatment of methylene blue solutions and industrials effluents, using anodic oxidation on Pb/PbO2 and stainless steel (SS)/PbO2 anodes. A comparative study of the influence of electrolyte support (NaCl, NaNO3, and Na2SO4) on the anodic oxidation performance and the anode stability was performed. The best results were obtained in presence of NaCl where the color removal percentage reached about 80.13% and 55.8%, for Pb/PbO2 anodes, and 89.5% and 60.4% for the SS/PbO2 anodes for alternating and direct current, respectively. Treatment in alternating current conditions enhanced the removal speed. Atomic absorption analysis confirmed the decrease of the release of (Pb2+) ions to much lower values compared with direct current and to those allowed by the Standards. LC/MS and phytotoxicity analyses confirmed the non-toxicity of the generated by-products during the anodic oxidation of methylene blue and the possibility of the reuse of the treated water.


Anodic oxidation Alternating current Direct current, Pb/PbO2 SS/PbO2 



The authors are particularly grateful for the Laboratory of Wastewaters and Environment located in the Center of water researches and technologies, CERTE Borj Cedria (Tunisia) and the Centre Grup de Técniques de Separació en Química (GTS) of Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB, Spain).

Special regards are also due to Pr. Kamel MAALOUL, translator and English language proofreading expert, for his valuable help with proofreading and language polishing of the manuscript.

Funding information

The study was financially supported by the Laboratory of Energy and Materials (High School of Sciences and Technology of Hammam Sousse, Tunisia).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amina Othmani
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Aida Kesraoui
    • 1
  • Hanene Akrout
    • 3
  • Montserrat López-Mesas
    • 4
  • Mongi Seffen
    • 1
  • Manuel Valiente
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Energy and Materials (LabEM): LR11ES34, Higher School of Science and Technology of Hammam SousseUniversity of SousseSousseTunisia
  2. 2.Faculty of Sciences of MonastirMonastir UniversityMonastirTunisia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Wastewaters and EnvironmentCenter of Water Researches and Technologies (CERTE)SolimanTunisia
  4. 4.Centre Grup de Técniques de Separació, en Química (GTS), Unitat de Química Analítica, Departament de Química, Facultat de CiènciesUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain

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