Development of sustainable and reusable silver nanoparticle-coated glass for the treatment of contaminated water

  • Jahirul Ahmed Mazumder
  • Mohammad Perwez
  • Rubia Noori
  • Meryam SardarEmail author
Research Article


Water contaminants like pathogenic microbes and organic pollutants pose a serious threat to human and aquatic life forms; thus, there is an urgent need to develop a sustainable and affordable water treatment technology. Nanomaterials especially metal nanoparticles have extensive applications in wastewater treatment, but the recovery and aggregation of nanoparticles in solution is a major limitation. In the present work, green synthesized silver nanoparticles were covalently immobilized on a glass surface to prevent aggregation of nanoparticles and to enhance their applicability. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) of silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-coated glass shows peaks of Si–O–Si, Si–O–C, and Ag–O at 1075 cm−1, 780 cm−1, and 608 cm−1 respectively which confirms the immobilization/conjugation of nanomaterial on glass surface. The surface morphology of immobilized AgNP was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which reveals nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed on glass surface. The AgNP-coated glass was used for the removal of textile dyes in solution; the result indicates approximately 95% of textile dyes were removed after 5 h of treatment. Removal of microbial contaminants from Yamuna River was studied by optical density analysis and confirmed by fluorescence dye staining. The AgNP-coated glass was also studied for their reusability and the data indicates 50% removal of microbes up to the 5th cycle. To further enhance the applicability, the inhibition of bacterial biofilms were analyzed by dark-field illumination with a fluorescence microscope. Thus AgNP-coated glass can be used in the development of food/water storage containers and in textile industries.


Green synthesis Immobilization Wastewater treatment Microbial contamination Nanoparticle-coated glass Organic contaminants Sustainable Reusable 



The financial support provided by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Government of India to JAM in the form of SRF is greatly acknowledged. The financial support provided by University Grant Commission (UGC) Government of India to MP is also acknowledged. The authors are also thankful to ICMR for providing the grant (grant number 35/8/2012-BMS).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Agnihotri S, Mukherji S, Mukherji S (2013) Immobilized silver nanoparticles enhance contact killing and show highest efficacy: elucidation of the mechanism of bactericidal action of silver. Nanoscale 5:7328–7340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S (2016) A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: a green expertise. J Adv Res 7:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alrousan DM, Dunlop PS, McMurray TA, Byrne JA (2009) Photocatalytic inactivation of E. coli in surface water using immobilised nanoparticle TiO2 films. Water Res 43:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin M, Alazba A, Manzoor U (2014) A review of removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials. Adv Mater Sci Eng:2014Google Scholar
  5. Anandan S, Lee G-J, Wu JJ (2012) Sonochemical synthesis of CuO nanostructures with different morphology. Ultrason Sonochem 19:682–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azzam AM, Shenashen MA, Selim MM, Alamoudi AS, El-Safty SA (2017) Hexagonal Mg (OH) 2 nanosheets as antibacterial agent for treating contaminated water sources. ChemistrySelect 2:11431–11437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Azzam AM, Shenashen MA, Mostafa BB, Kandeel WA, El-Safty SA (2019) Antibacterial Activity of Magnesium Oxide Nano-hexagonal Sheets for Wastewater Remediation. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 38:S260–S266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badawy AME, Luxton TP, Silva RG, Scheckel KG, Suidan MT, Tolaymat TM (2010) Impact of environmental conditions (pH, ionic strength, and electrolyte type) on the surface charge and aggregation of silver nanoparticles suspensions. Environ Sci Technol 44:1260–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruce IJ, Sen T (2005) Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles with alkoxysilanes and their application in magnetic bioseparations. Langmuir 21:7029–7035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Çeçen F, Aktas Ö (2011) Activated carbon for water and wastewater treatment: integration of adsorption and biological treatment. WileyGoogle Scholar
  11. Coleman AW (1980) Enhanced detection of bacteria in natural environments by fluorochrome staining of DNA 1. Limnol Oceanogr 25:948–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Durán N, Durán M, de Jesus MB, Seabra AB, Fávaro WJ, Nakazato G (2016) Silver nanoparticles: a new view on mechanistic aspects on antimicrobial activity. Nanomedicine 12:789–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan F, Wang X, Ma Y, Fu K, Yang Y (2015) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dye wastewater using ZnO/reduced graphene oxide hybrids. Fullerenes Nanotubes Carbon Nanostruct 23:917–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gehrke I, Geiser A, Somborn-Schulz A (2015) Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment. Nanotechnol Sci Appl 8:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grasset F, Saito N, Li D, Park D, Sakaguchi I, Ohashi N, Haneda H, Roisnel T, Mornet S, Duguet E (2003) Surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles by aminopropyltriethoxysilane. J Alloys Compd 360:298–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hotze EM, Phenrat T, Lowry GV (2010) Nanoparticle aggregation: challenges to understanding transport and reactivity in the environment. J Environ Qual 39:1909–1924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jung J-Y, Chung Y-C, Shin H-S, Son D-H (2004) Enhanced ammonia nitrogen removal using consistent biological regeneration and ammonium exchange of zeolite in modified SBR process. Water Res 38:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khatoon N, Ahmad R, Sardar M (2015a) Robust and fluorescent silver nanoparticles using Artemisia annua: biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity. Biochem Eng J 102:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khatoon N, Mishra A, Alam H, Manzoor N, Sardar M (2015b) Biosynthesis, characterization, and antifungal activity of the silver nanoparticles against pathogenic Candida species. BioNanoScience 5:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khatoon N, Alam H, Manzoor N, Sardar M (2018) Removal of toxic contaminants from water by sustainable green synthesised non-toxic silver nanoparticles. IET Nanobiotechnol 12:1090–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Konstantinou IK, Albanis TA (2004) TiO2-assisted photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solution: kinetic and mechanistic investigations: a review. Appl Catal B Environ 49:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kulkarni N, Muddapur U (2014) Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles: a review. J Nanotechnol:2014Google Scholar
  23. Kumar R, Umar A, Kumar G, Nalwa HS (2017) Antimicrobial properties of ZnO nanomaterials: a review. Ceram Int 43:3940–3961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li X, Lenhart JJ (2012) Aggregation and dissolution of silver nanoparticles in natural surface water. Environ Sci Technol 46:5378–5386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lin H-L, Sou N-L, Huang GG (2015) Single-step preparation of recyclable silver nanoparticle immobilized porous glass filters for the catalytic reduction of nitroarenes. RSC Adv 5:19248–19254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lu AH, Salabas EL, Schüth F (2007) Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:1222–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lu H, Wang J, Stoller M, Wang T, Bao Y, Hao H (2016) An overview of nanomaterials for water and wastewater treatment. Adv Mater Sci Eng:2016Google Scholar
  28. Lv M, Su S, He Y, Huang Q, Hu W, Li D, Fan C, Lee ST (2010) Long-term antimicrobial effect of silicon nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles. Adv Mater 22:5463–5467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mayo J et al (2007) The effect of nanocrystalline magnetite size on arsenic removal. Sci Technol Adv Mater 8:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nayak D, Kumari M, Rajachandar S, Ashe S, Thathapudi NC, Nayak B (2016) Biofilm impeding AgNPs target skin carcinoma by inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization mediated through ROS production. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:28538–28553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pearce C, Lloyd J, Guthrie J (2003) The removal of colour from textile wastewater using whole bacterial cells: a review Dyes and pigments, vol 58, pp 179–196Google Scholar
  32. Qayyum S, Oves M, Khan AU (2017) Obliteration of bacterial growth and biofilm through ROS generation by facilely synthesized green silver nanoparticles. PLoS One 12:e0181363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A (2009) Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv 27:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rajasulochana P, Preethy V (2016) Comparison on efficiency of various techniques in treatment of waste and sewage water–a comprehensive review. Resource-Efficient Technol 2:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Santhosh C, Velmurugan V, Jacob G, Jeong SK, Grace AN, Bhatnagar A (2016) Role of nanomaterials in water treatment applications: a review. Chem Eng J 306:1116–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sardar M, Mazumder JA (2019) Biomolecules assisted synthesis of metal nanoparticles. In: Environmental nanotechnology. Springer, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  37. Savage N, Diallo MS (2005) Nanomaterials and water purification: opportunities and challenges. J Nanopart Res 7:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Seralathan J, Stevenson P, Subramaniam S, Raghavan R, Pemaiah B, Sivasubramanian A, Veerappan A (2014) Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 118:349–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sharma G, Rao S, Bansal A, Dang S, Gupta S, Gabrani R (2014) Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm: potential therapeutic targets. Biologicals 42:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharma VK, McDonald TJ, Kim H, Garg VK (2015) Magnetic graphene–carbon nanotube iron nanocomposites as adsorbents and antibacterial agents for water purification. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 225:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shenashen MA, El-Safty SA, Elshehy EA (2014) Synthesis, morphological control, and properties of silver nanoparticles in potential applications. Part Part Syst Charact 31:293–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shittu K, Ihebunna O (2017) Purification of simulated waste water using green synthesized silver nanoparticles of Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leave extract. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 8:045003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Su H-L, Chou CC, Hung DJ, Lin SH, Pao IC, Lin JH, Huang FL, Dong RX, Lin JJ (2009) The disruption of bacterial membrane integrity through ROS generation induced by nanohybrids of silver and clay. Biomaterials 30:5979–5987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vilas V, Philip D, Mathew J (2014) Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 132:743–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang H, Cheng M, Hu J, Wang C, Xu S, Han CC (2013) Preparation and optimization of silver nanoparticles embedded electrospun membrane for implant associated infections prevention. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:11014–11021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Xiong Z, Zhang LL, Ma J, Zhao X (2010) Photocatalytic degradation of dyes over graphene–gold nanocomposites under visible light irradiation. Chem Commun 46:6099–6101CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jahirul Ahmed Mazumder
    • 1
  • Mohammad Perwez
    • 1
  • Rubia Noori
    • 1
  • Meryam Sardar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations