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Multi-core-shell composite SnO2NPs@ZIF-8: potential antiviral agent and effective photocatalyst for waste-water treatment

  • Ramesh Chandra
  • Vedita Singh
  • Shailly Tomar
  • Mala NathEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

With increasing environment pollution and bacterial transmitted viral diseases globally, the development of new, effective, and low-cost materials/strategies is the current major challenge. To combat with this alarming problem, three new multi-functional and thermally stable SnO2NPs@ZIF-8 composites (NC1, NC2, and NC3) were synthesized by a facile and sustainable approach involving in situ encapsulation of SnO2NPs (150, 300, and 500 μL suspension in methanol) within zeolitic imidazole framework at room temperature. The morphology and crystallinity of ZIF-8 remained unchanged upon the proper encapsulation of SnO2NPs in its matrix. Herein, for the first time, the antiviral potential of ZIF-8 and SnO2NPs@ZIF-8 against chikungunya virus is reported by investigating their cytotoxicity against Vero cell line (employing MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)) assay). The maximum non-toxic doses were 0.04 mg mL−1 for ZIF-8 and SnO2NPs@ZIF-8 and 0.1 mg mL−1 for SnO2NPs. Further, NC1 exhibited (based on plaque assay) reduction in viral load/titers up to > 80% during post-treatment and > 50% during pre-treatment, greater than that of ZIF-8 and SnO2NPs due to synergistic effect. Further, NC1 (10 mg) exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency (≥ 96%) for degradation of methylene blue (0.5 × 10−5 M) at pH ˃ 7.0. The probable mechanism for their antiviral activity and photocatalytic activity has been discussed. The multi-functional composites can effectively be used to reduce water pollution and as remedy for mosquito/bacterial transmitted viral diseases.

Keywords

Multi-core-shell Chikungunya virus Photocatalyst Environment and health remedy 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of the interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5646_MOESM1_ESM.doc (12.6 mb)
ESM 1 The manuscript includes the electronic supplementary file which contains the details synthesis process of SnO2NPs, ZIF-8 and their composites, details of adsorption and photodegradation studies (S-Text); the PXRD (S1), FT-IR spectra (S2) and SEM images (S3) of ZIF-8, SnO2NPs and NC1, particle size distribution plot of encapsulated SnO2NPs (S4); SEM and TEM images of NC2 and NC3 composite (S5); EDX analysis (S6), BET adsorption isotherm (S-7), XPS analysis of SnO2NPs, ZIF-8 and their composites (S8); Thermal stability (S9); TEM images of NC1 after treatment (S10), UV-Visible absorbance spectra of MB (S11); Zeta Potential analysis of SnO2NPs, ZIF-8 and their composites at various pH (S12); Fluorescence spectral changes using photocatalyst in dark and under UV-Visible light (S13 and S14), Scavenger analysis (S15), UV-visible spectra for scavenger analysis experiments (S16) and Possible degraded fragments examination by GC-MS (S17) and Tables ST1 to ST9 for different studies. (DOC 12870 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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