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Transformation of atrazine by photolysis and radiolysis: kinetic parameters, intermediates and economic consideration

  • Georgina Rózsa
  • Ákos Fazekas
  • Máté Náfrádi
  • Tünde Alapi
  • Krisztina Schrantz
  • Erzsébet TakácsEmail author
  • László Wojnárovits
  • Andreas Fath
  • Thomas Oppenländer
Research Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Four techniques, UV254 nm photolysis, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV172 nm) photolysis, combined UV254 nm/VUV185 nm photolysis and gamma (γ) radiolysis were used to induce the transformation of atrazine in aqueous solution. The effects of dissolved oxygen (atrazine concentration 1 × 10−4 mol L−1 and 4.6 × 10−7 mol L−1) and matrix (high purity water/purified wastewater, atrazine concentration 4.6 × 10−7 mol L−1) and the electric energy requirements were investigated. The calculation of the energy input in cases of the photolyses was based on the lamp’s power. In radiolysis, the absorbed dose (J kg−1) was the basis. In UV photolysis, atrazine transforms to atrazine-2-hydroxy; this product practically does not degrade during UV photolysis; due to this reason, the mineralisation is very slow. This and some other products of atrazine decomposition degrade only in radical reactions. Dissolved oxygen usually slightly enhances the degradation rate. At 10−7 mol L−1 concentration level, the matrix, high purity water/purified wastewater, has not much influence on the degradation rates in UV photolysis and radiolysis. In the VUV and UV/VUV systems, considerable matrix effects were observed. Comparing the electric energy requirements of the four degradation processes, radiolysis was found to be the economically most feasible method, requiring 1–2 orders of magnitude less electric energy than UV/VUV, VUV and UV photolysis.

Keywords

Atrazine AOPs Hydroxyl radical Hydrated electron Mineralisation Intermediates Energy requirements 

Notes

Funding information

This research was supported by OTKA, NK 105802. T. Alapi and K. Schrantz acknowledge the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and Tempus Foundation for financial support (project number: 151955). K. Schrantz acknowledges the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/1-11-1-2012-0001 ‘National Excellence Program’.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgina Rózsa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ákos Fazekas
    • 1
  • Máté Náfrádi
    • 1
  • Tünde Alapi
    • 1
  • Krisztina Schrantz
    • 1
  • Erzsébet Takács
    • 2
    Email author
  • László Wojnárovits
    • 2
  • Andreas Fath
    • 3
  • Thomas Oppenländer
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Inorganic and Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SzegedSzegedHungary
  2. 2.Radiation Chemistry Department, Institute for Energy Security and Environmental Safety, Centre for Energy ResearchHungarian Academy of SciencesBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Faculty of Medical and Life SciencesHochschule Furtwangen University, Campus Villingen-SchwenningenVillingen-SchwenningenGermany

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