Effects of layered combined substrates on plant growth and treatment performance and its spatiotemporal variation of vertical-flow constructed wetlands

  • Junmei WuEmail author
  • Dong Xu
  • Qiaohong Zhou
  • Liping Zhang
  • Feng He
  • Zhenbin Wu
Research Article


Layered combined bio-ceramic, zeolite, and anthracite were used as substrates in vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) for enhancing contaminant removal from synthetic municipal wastewater. Plant growth and propagation and the removal of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus as well as its spatiotemporal variation were evaluated systematically. The results demonstrated that three different substrates were adequate for the establishment of Canna indica L., especially for zeolite. All small-scale VFCW units were simultaneous efficient in removing CODCr (73.9–78.7%), NH4+-N (83.8–89.9%), TN (88.3–91.5%), SRP (93.8–98.6%), and TP (87.1–90.9%) with a little significant difference on treatment performance. Different pollution removal processes followed a different trend because of their different removal mechanisms driven by the synergy of substrate, plant, and microorganism. Purification space moved down due to the adsorption capacity consumption of upper layer substrate over time. It was concluded that VFCWs filled with layered combined bio-ceramic, zeolite, and anthracite had great potential for treating municipal wastewater.


Vertical-flow constructed wetland Layered combined substrate Municipal wastewater Pollutant removal Hodrick-Prescott filter Spatiotemporal variation 



This work was supported by the Open research fund of Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute (CKWV2017536/KY) and Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KFJ-STS-ZDTP-038).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5593_MOESM1_ESM.docx (85 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 85 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junmei Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dong Xu
    • 1
  • Qiaohong Zhou
    • 1
  • Liping Zhang
    • 1
  • Feng He
    • 1
  • Zhenbin Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

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